||A Study on Dīwānkhāna of Kurdish Tribal Chief in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries
||최남섭(Choi, Namsub) ; 전봉희(Jeon, Bong-Hee)
|| Kurdistan; Kurd; Tribal Chief; Black Tent; Woven Goat Hair Tent; Public Tent; Dīwānkhāna
||This study investigates the architectural and regional characteristics of Kurdish tribal chief's tent (dīwānkhāna) based on the travel documents written by the British travellers in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Kurdish black tent has been defined as not only a black tent for a nomadic family in the Middle East, but also an ethnographical model presenting the Kurdish identity up to now. The Kurdish tribes, however, were hierarchical groups with independent forces and the tribal chiefs had used a kind of public tent until Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria were established. The chiefs’ tent was the multi-used facility for own dwelling, reception, and travellers' guesthouse to perform the traditional duties of the tribal leader, as well as the symbolic architecture on a large scale distinguished from the other tribesmen’s. The tent is classified into three types based on the spatial composition, especially the placement of dīwānkhāna space. The distribution of the types, like the Kurdish dialects, were divided by the main mountain ranges such as the Zagros and Taurus Mountains. The distributional pattern could be understood to represent one aspect of the ethnic composition of the Kurds who consist of various origins.