Journal of
the Architectural Institute of Korea

  • ISSN : 2733-6239(Print)
  • ISSN : 2733-6247(Online)

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A Study on the Characteristics of the Housing Demand of Single-Person Households Affecting the Intergenerational Homeshare

이태규(Lee, Taegyu) ; 최재필(Choi, Jaepil)

At a time when the number of single-person households are soaring and approaching a super-aged society, the Seoul Metropolitan Government's Generational Empathy Under a Roof project was launched. This is a housing sharing program between generations for practical purposes in terms of social welfare for the elderly and housing for the youth. This study focused on identifying factors affecting the matching results of this project, which could be a new residential type in the upcoming super-aged society. Quantitative analysis was made to understand this project in the urban context of districts, excluding the sociocultural perspective, using national statistics. Five quantitative indicators that represented housing needs were selected as home visitors, and 13 indicators representing housing characteristics were selected as home providers, including population characteristics, gender, and local economic conditions. In addition, the matching results data of the elderly and the young in the dependent Generational Empathy Under a Roof project were disclosed on a district basis, the data of independent variables representing young and old participants were organized into 15 districts, and a multiple regression analysis was performed. According to this analysis, the number of universities and the number of apartments where older women reside were factors that significantly affected the performance of the Han-roof generation empathy project. Since each of these two factors represented the quantitative housing needs of the young generation represented by the number of universities and the housing characteristics of the older generation who provide housing, these aspects should be simultaneously considered for this project.

Bibliometric Analysis on International Trends of Research on Single-Person Housing

이소연(Lee, Soyeon) ; 박혜선(Park, Hyesun)

The purpose of this study is to understand the international trends of previous studies related to single-person housing and compare the last ten years and the preceding decades. Using bibliometric analysis, the publication patterns of literature by year, the changes in research achievements and topics over time by country and journal were reviewed. The reviewed articles were extracted from Scopus using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. To analyze this massive amount of extracted data efficiently and systematically, the Bibliometrix R Package and VOSviewer software was used. A network and cluster analysis of keywords was performed that examined a nation’s performance in terms of article production, research exchange and a journal’s performance involving the field of topical research. The results revealed that over the last ten years, single-person households have rapidly increased along with the research done on single-person housing. Over the last decade, studies on single-person housing have diversified, becoming more complex. Asia-Pacific countries have emerged and significantly contributed to the literature on single-person housing studies. The academic fields of these journals have diversified as it seems to relate to the diversification of research topics. This study could be used as basic data for understanding single-person housing and in solving future demographic and housing problems.

The Place-boundary Experiences Based Upon Edward S. Casey's Body/Place-memory

김지희(Kim, Ji-hee) ; 조한(Joh, Hahn)

This study explores a place as an experience of boundaries and examines the process of how the architectural experience on thresholds is constructed, leaving a strong impression on body-memory. As Edward S. Casey in 2000 noted, body-memory is intricately tied with place-memory. When reminiscing on a place, not only can people recall it, but also how they intimately acted in it with the emotions they experienced. Casey argues that a place has a certain boundary; therefore, experiencing it allows a body to perceive being inside. Also perceiving being inside involves kinesthetic experiences-body schema(container&path-goal), focusing on the literature of traditional Korean architecture. This study analyzes how old buildings create bodily movements, which lead to the unique sense of the place. The analysis reveals that these thresholds created inter-leaving of moving and pausing, and constructed thresholds in our bodies. Body memories at each threshold formulates a series of sequences; it eventually provokes a deep architectural impression.

The Multi-objective Optimization Using Evolutionary Algorithm to Design Architectural Layouts

장동국(Chang, DongKuk) ; 박주희(Park, Joohee)

This research aims to propose an efficient genetic algorithm model that generates a high-quality set of alternatives in architectural design where various objectives interact and compete. By integrating a novel location-based genotyping expression approach into an architectural design domain, an automated model would generate architectural layout forms using a genetic algorithm. Depending on the degree of fitness to the architectural layout form, the initialization and crossover method based on adjacent nodes proposed in this study exhibited different morphological characteristics. However, both quickly accomplished the desired result. The evolutionary algorithm and the fitness function for evaluating architectural layouts provided the opportunity to rapidly produce the best alternatives out of a large pool of options by evaluating user requirements and properties as used during the preliminary stages of architectural design. In a generating environment where many degrees of fitness are applied simultaneously and that contribute to fitness, the Pareto optimal method was utilized to provide balanced alternatives between multiple user requirements.

A Regeneration Strategy of an Aged-Friendly Residential Area Based on the Salutogenic Model

차현주(Cha, Hyeon-Ju) ; 박성준(Park, Sung-Jun)

In 2022, Korea entered as an aging society with 17.2% consisting of the elderly population. New countermeasures are needed to cope with the upcoming super-aged society. The health production model allows active health to be maintained beyond the concept of simple disease treatment. The purpose of this study is to propose an aging-friendly housing regeneration strategy, conduct a survey and derive planning elements according to the health generation model and WHO's aging-friendly city guide. The theory behind the health generation model and the urban regeneration projects were reviewed and a survey was conducted on experts and the elderly using the derived factors of the elderly-friendly housing regeneration plan. Based on these survey results, the importance and satisfaction surveys were then conducted using the IPA technique and a strategy was proposed. As a result of this study, both experts and the elderly showed a high level of importance in expanding medical facilities and removing obstacles in the street environment. There was a lack of satisfaction with the mobility and safety of the elderly, and an environment that supports these aspects should be created for the active aging elderly. Lastly, considerable improvement is required for jobs involving the elderly, such as senior village designers and silver cafe support.

Environmental Planning for Publicness Improvement of Urban Public Space

이경연(Lee, Gyeongyeon) ; 하미경(Ha, Mikyoung) ; 변기동(Byun, Gidong)

The purpose of this study is to derive specific realization plans and priorities for strengthening the publicness of urban public spaces that closely affect the quality of life for its urban residents. In this study, the perception of young people and the elderly were analyzed to derive environmental planning factors that affect the improvement on publicness of urban public spaces. These eight factors were explored: environmental planning considering emotional satisfaction, inclusive space planning, pedestrian-centered environmental planning, sustainable operations planning, easy-to-access facility planning, sanitary management planning, shared facilities planning, community support and integrated design planning. To improve the quality of life for individuals, the overall publicness of society needs to be strengthened. The youth and the elderly perceived publicness as important in all public spaces, and the elderly tended to perceive it as more significant. In particular, there was a tendency to perceive publicness as meaningful as medical and transportation facilities. There was a difference between generations in public administrative facilities and culture and arts facilities. It was found that the younger generation sought to expand publicness through efficiency and convenience, and the elderly through a sense of belonging and integration of the community. To improve the publicness of a neighborhood unit facility, a detailed operation plan considering the behavior and specific situations of major demand groups is required. In addition, the regional base facility should ensure access to facilities and programs as a top priority regardless of age. In future studies, based on the planning factors derived from this study, it will be possible to present practical plans and management plans for improving the publicness of a space created by surveying specific public spaces.

Eco-integrative Architecture Collaboration Process of High-speed Rail Station

정용화(Jung, Yong-Hwa) ; 박용서(Park, Yong-Seo)

This study aims to examine the methodological approach of integrated design based on ecological standards of the overall architectural collaboration process centered on the Stuttgart Central Station project. The development background of this project focused on references based on the common guidelines of the master plan of urban and architectural integrated plans and examined all aspects of the architectural design. This integrated the entire design around Light Eye, a module structure in which a skylight-column was integrated. Christoph Ingenhoven’s skylight plan was bio-form, Frei Otto’s column plan was bubble form, Werner Sobeck’s roof plan was shown as the design concept of a hole punching form. This design approach had a tendency toward a net-zero energy structure and implemented eco-integrative architecture. The Stuttgart Central Station project suggested the possibility of a new design methodological approach within the scope of an urban project, and will be a great reference for future explorations of integrated design methodologies based on ecology.

A Study on the Housing Poverty and Mental Health in Single-person Households by Age Group Type

임성옥(Lim, Sung-Ok)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of housing poverty on mental health in single-person households. Using the 15th Korean Welfare Panel research data, single-person households were classified into young, middle-aged, and elderly people, and analyzed using Heyes' process macro model 6. The sample size was 2,092 households. The results of this study were as follows; 23.8% of young single-person households, 28.6% of middle-aged single-person households, and 28.2% of elderly single-person households were found to be housing poverty. Single-person households for young people were the most influenced by the overload of housing costs, and single-person households for old people were the most influenced by falling short of the minimum housing standard. For middle-aged single-person households, the simple mediating path to housing poverty→self-esteem→subjective happiness and the double mediating path to housing poverty→self-esteem→ depression→subjective happiness were statistically significant. For elderly single-person households, both the simple mediating path to housing poverty→self-esteem→subjective happiness and the simple mediating path to housing poverty→ depression→subjective happiness were statistically significant. In addition, it was found that the double mediating path to housing poverty→self-esteem→depression→subjective happiness was significant. Based on the results of this study, suggestions on housing policy were made.

The Characteristics and Types of Roundabouts That Consider Multi-level Development of Autonomous Roads

박치영(Park, Chiyoung) ; 장산(Jang, San) ; 이선규(Lee, Sunkyu) ; 박동민(Park, Dongmin) ; 김기태(Kim, Kitae)

This study analyzes the characteristics and types of roundabouts in Seoul from the perspective of multi-level development with consideration to the spread of autonomous vehicles in the near future. By utilizing the criteria of multi-level development derived from literature review, 69 roundabouts were examined; their attributes of space usability, traffic safety, and local connectivity were compared by living sphere, and then cluster analysis was conducted. As a result, roundabouts were classified into three types: Type 1 was distributed throughout each living area, Type 2 was concentrated in the city center and Type 3 was mainly distributed adjacent to the Han River and outskirt arterial roads. A sectional design concept for each type was proposed as smart parking, public transit, and local fulfilment corresponding to the change of future mobility demand. The result of study could be used as a resource to support the planning and management of roundabout multi-level development in preparation for the era of autonomous vehicles. Further studies on related policies and design issues for the implementation of multi-level development is necessary.

Development of a Prediction Model for EEG-based Relaxation-arousal State of Users Experiencing a Virtual Reality Space

김상희(Kim, Sang-Hee) ; 추승연(Choo, Seung-Yeon)

This study was carried out to develop a model that can predict a user's relaxation-arousal state by using electroencephalogram (EEG) data and machine learning algorithms of users experiencing a virtual reality space. Specific ways were proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of this model. Upon learning about this model, the prediction performance was compared while changing the hyperparameter conditions of each model using supervised learning-based machine learning models suitable for the development of predictive models known as the random forest, support vector machine, and artificial neural network algorithms. As a result, the random forest model had the highest prediction accuracy when there were 300 trees, the support vector machine model when a sigmoid kernel was applied, and the artificial neural network model when there were five hidden layers; these results confirmed that each optimal parameter condition could be met. Each model was learned by applying the feature extraction method suggested in feature engineering to derive an improvement method in the prediction performance of each model. The results revealed that when the frequency-specific statistics and filtering-based feature extraction method was applied, the prediction performance improved in the random forest and artificial neural network models. Additionally, it was shown that the machine learning models that could best predict the relaxation-arousal state from the EEG data of users experiencing a virtual reality space was the artificial neural network model with five hidden layers applied with the frequency-specific statistics and filtering-based feature processing method; its predictive accuracy was 70.21%. The results of this study could be useful basic data to implement an automated system that evaluates the design drafts of a healing space by utilizing virtual reality and EEG data.