Journal of
the Architectural Institute of Korea

Monthly
  • ISSN : 2733-6239(Print)
  • ISSN : 2733-6247(Online)

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A Study on the Demand and Education Program of Construction Skill Education Facilities to Enhance the Field Experience and Expertise

남지현(Nam, Jee-Hyun) ; 조희은(Jo, Hee-Eun)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.3

The construction industry is a field with the largest number of workers among single industries, but various problems such as lack of employment safety, inadequate skilled expertise, decline in labor productivity, and the generalization of apprenticeship education are occurring. Despite the government introducing various systems to strengthen wage guarantees, improve the working environment, and secure skilled workers, the lack of education and training institutions to foster construction workers is a recurring issue. It is urgent to improve the professionalism of construction workers, and the working environment for field work employees. In this study, the advanced programs of construction skill education facilities were identified through the study of legal systems, related policies, similar case reviews, and interviews were conducted about practical demand and essential education programs. As a result, the lack of expertise and fieldwork was derived as the biggest issues regarding domestic construction skill education. However, public-private cooperation, public-led, and private-led educational programs were found to have high expertise, signifying that the operation of facilities in the form of public-private cooperation is most suitable to ensure stable operation. In the future, further research should be conducted in various fields to derive detailed curriculum and operation plans to improve productivity and job structure of the construction industry in the long run.

A Study on the Spatial Characteristics for the Activation and Control of Informal Communication Found in the Space Group Old Office Building

이재영(Lee, Jae-Young) ; 최윤경(Choi, Yoon-Kyung)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.15

This study aims to derive the spatial characteristics of Kim Swoo-Geun’s Space Group Old Office Building that can be used to activate and control informal communication, the essential element required in contemporary workplaces. This paper draws the following conclusions. First, the entire spatial organization of the building shows two characteristics: a sequentially connected spatial structure and a circular circulation system. The former means that the interconnection between spaces is made in the form of a skip floor and, thus, connected sequentially and according to certain phases. Due to the forced movement and visual continuity caused by the characteristics of these connections, occurs active and wide informal communication that transcends the divisions of the headquarters’ departments and floors. The circular circulation system means that communication allowing free choices can be provided by constructing several circular circulation paths. It can compensate for the simplicity of communication caused by the forced movement. The free movement enabled due to the selection of various routes generates nomadic communication, required in contemporary offices, through frequent encounters among employees in the moving process. Finally, the central indoor and outdoor void spaces of this building activate communication. At the same time, the human scale in the workspace and the composition of the various floor levels serve to compensate for the decrease in work concentration level, that may occur because of the activated communication, enabling gradual control of communication.

Derivation of Smart Urban Regeneration Service Using Monte Carlo Simulation and Estimation of Importance

강수연(Gang, Su-Yeon) ; 정연준(Jeong, Yeon-Jun) ; 이경환(Lee, Kyung-Hwan) ; 고은정(Ko, Eun-Jeong)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.27

In the current 4th industrial revolution era, there is an increasing interest worldwide in smart cities with smart technology applied to established cities. However, in the process of promoting these smart urban regeneration projects, specific and relevant services must first be introduced; few studies have been conducted on the importance of each. Therefore, this study derives several smart urban regeneration services that can be applied to smart urban regeneration projects while utilizing the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to supplement the sample limitations and uncertainty risks of existing decision-making methodologies. Therefore, in this study, four types and thirteen detailed serviceswere derived through existing research and related guidelines. Through an expert survey, the importance of each service was calculated, and risks were considered by defining unavoidable, uncertainty factors in a probability distribution using MCS; the process was repeated 100,000 times. The most important service scored 28.4% for Work·Employment, in the detailed service category 9.4% was for the job information service, 9.3% for safe return home service and 9.2% for fire monitoring. These results suggest that smart urban regeneration services should be applied differently according to the location of the target site and the size of the project. Additionally, when implementing smart urban regeneration projects, it is necessary to actively introduce smart urban regeneration services that can help local residents solve job issues, crime and disaster prevention concerns, and environmental problems. From a methodological point of view, this study is significant in that it proposed and utilized MCS to supplement the risk of uncertainty in the existing expert survey. These results are expected to be useful in the process of further promoting smart urban regeneration.

A Study on Changes of Legal Management Standards for Outdoor Advertisement Landscape

이승지(Lee, Seung Ji)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.37

The purpose of this study is to suggest the tendency and problems through a time-series analysis of legal management standards of the outdoor advertisement landscape. Moreover, based on the analysis result of the problem, a direction for improvement was suggested. Changes in management standards over 30 years from 1991 to 2021 were analyzed for each of the eight elements of type, shape, quantity, size, display location, color, material, and lighting for which legal management standards were established. Although the outdoor advertisement landscape formed by a cluster of outdoor advertisements is an important element of the urban landscape, in Korea, it is being criticized as the main culprit in lowering the urban landscape as more and larger outdoor advertisements are installed. Among the analysis elements, it was confirmed that there was no significant change in the management standards for type, form, material, and lighting, but the quantity, size, and location were continuously relaxed. Not only specific figures such as number and area, but also mitigation conditions and targets have been relaxed. In particular, after the introduction of digital advertisements in 2016, the size, location, application area, and protrusion width have been expanded. Although digital advertisements have a very large impact on the urban landscape, management standards were relaxed without careful consideration. It is necessary to seek specific solutions through in-depth follow-up studies for each analysis element.

The Comparative Analysis of Educational Systemicity Between Architectural and Medical Professionalism in Korea

정태종(Jeong, Tae-Jong)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.49

In the 1900s, the Korean government imported architectural and medical professionalism from the West while adopting modernization in the process. Professionalism was spontaneous and autonomous in Western countries, but in Korea strong governmental regulations and restrictions were imposed. This study aims to review and compare the educational systemicity involving 68 architectural courses, 40 medical schools, 30 architectural firms, and 46 accredited tertiary medical hospitals of architectural and medical professionals in Korea. This research revealed that the educational system in the medical field is extremely subdivided and specialized, but the architectural field is integrated with a tendency to be generalized. Although the architectural design field has drastically changed from architectural engineering to a five-year undergraduate educational system with Korean architectural accreditation, the medical educational system has only had minor changes after being systematized. Lastly, the clinical education programs in hospitals are accredited by official organizations, however the architectural practice programs will need accreditation to overcome issues within the architectural practice educational system.

Study on the Categorization of Residential House for the Integrated Remodeling of Elderly Housing

이진경(Lee, Jin-Kyoung) ; 문정인(Moon, Jung-In)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.57

The purpose of the study is to classify the residential structures according to the main area for the integrated remodeling of residential houses and to suggest the integrated remodeling plan of the residential layout for the elderly. The procedure is as follows. First, a literature review on the integrated remodeling of residential spaces and housing for the elderly is conducted. Second, focusing on residential house in non-metropolitan areas, rural house types are categorized and their spatial hierarchy is investigated. Third, spatial characteristics are analyzed through current status and interview surveys. Finally, the plan for integrated remodeling of residential spaces for the elderly is presented. The conclusion of the study is as follows. The rural house types are categorized to a living room centered type and a bedroom centered type. The living room centered type is a type with the living room in the center and rooms at the edges. The bedroom centered type is a type in which rooms (bedrooms) are arranged in parallel and connected by a hallway. For integrated remodeling of residential space for the elderly, it is required to decide the space that is mainly used. The main area should be well connected with other functions. Efficient connections between public space and private space and between private spaces are necessary. The size of unnecessary space should be reduced and other rooms can be merged in order to expand the size of the main use area.

Pre-architectural Planning Status Analysis of Public Buildings and its Improvements

박석환(Park, Seok-Hwan) ; 이혜원(Lee, Hye-won) ; 양은영(Yang, Eun-Young)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.65

To establish and vitalize a public building’s pre-architectural planning, this study intends to derive specific analysis items, determine the current status and navigate system improvements. The pre-architectural planning analysis items were prepared by comparing and analyzing the 'Pre-architectural Planning Task Performance Guideline' items and the preliminary review items; a total of 346 actual public building projects were analyzed. On average, 45.69% of 68 items were performed, however, details on materializing public characteristics, improving the class and design details regarding the project management systems were insufficient. As a result of conducting a one-way ANOVA on the use of buildings, institutions, and construction methods, it was found that the ordering institutions and construction methods had an impact on the current status of construction planning. The correlation according to the size of the design cost was judged to be minimal. Therefore, a plan to differentiate planning work based on these institutions and construction methods including subdividing the system improvement direction items were proposed.

Plans to Construct a VR-EEG Based on the Healing Space Visual Perception Element Optimization Model

김상희(Kim, Sang-Hee) ; 이권형(Lee, Kweon-Hyoung) ; 추승연(Choo, Seung-Yeon)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.77

This study aims to analyze users’ EEG responses of visual perception elements for a reproduced healing space in an immersive virtual reality setting to construct a model that can produce a visual perception element combination scheme. A brain wave measurement experiment was carried out targeting a total of 33 females that measured their changes in arousal and stress levels before and after stimulation using RAB and RHB indices to apply the analysis results for model construction. Statistically, it was verified that changes in visual perception elements such as aspect ratio of space, ceiling height and window area ratio influenced EEG, which is involved in the relaxation-arousal and stress levels of research participants. This implied that reflecting on users’ physiological responses in planning a healing space is essential. Arousal and stress levels of research participants differed in each virtual reality space, applying changes in spatial and visual perception elements. There was a specific part of the brain that responded sensitively, which signified a need for a model that can perform an integrated analysis. Standardization was applied to correct the RAB and RHB indices to extract the arousal and stress level ranges using the deviation percentage of the median values from the corrected indices. An integrated matrix of arousal and stress levels were devised to suggest a standard domain for selecting a combination of visual perception elements optimized for a healing space. Lastly, an optimized model integrating an EEG data analysis framework and matrix were designed. This model is a variable model where the result value can change depending on the healing space visual perception element and EEG indicators. In the future, this research would be useful for planning a healing space that applies physiological responses.

An Analysis of Apartment Complex’s Main Entrance’s Architectural Expression Based on the Changes of an Apartment’s Social Perception

박상호(Park, Sang-Ho) ; 서현(Seo, Hyun)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.89

This study aims to analyze the transformation of architectural expressions involving an apartment complex’s main entrance and reveal the changes made on an apartment’s social perception. An apartment’s social perception was segmented into five distinct stages of time based on previous research that include the bourgeosify stage, commercialize stage, recession stage, differentiation stage and the intense-differentiation stage. Photographs of the architectural expressions of the main entrances were taken at actual apartment complex visits to use as data. The collected photographs were analyzed and placed into two categories: the physical forms of the main entrances and the apartment brand locations. The main entrance of an apartment complex’s physical transformation occurred when an underground parking lot was built due to the increase in vehicles and traffic in the area. For pedestrian safety, vehicle roads and pedestrian walkways were separated at the main entrance. The location of an apartment complex’s brand dramatically changed following the increase of social value regarding these brand-name apartments. Throughout the branding process, apartments showcased an ostentatious display of wealth due to the residents’ change in social perception of apartments. During the early 2000s to early 2010s, to satisfy these architectural expression changes, gate-shaped structures were installed at a complex’s main entrance during the differentiation stage. The gate-shaped structure not only functioned to separate the vehicle and pedestrian pathways, but also served as a display of a complex’s name as their prominent ostentation strategy.

A Study on Crime Prevention through Environmental Design to Create a Safe Environment for Childcare in Urban Low-rise Residential Areas

이효창(Lee, Hyo-Chang) ; 하미경(Ha, Mi-Kyoung)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2022.38.6.99

It is necessary to apply crime prevention environmental design through improvement of the physical environment to relieve crime and fear of crime by children for the purpose of creating a safe childcare environment for urban low-rise residential area. This study proposes a plan for urban low-rise residential areas that factor such environmental characteristics and to support childcare by offering improvement measures for a safer space. A literature review was analyzed, and a survey conducted on 366 parents. The analysis results of this research indicated that expanding and designating various child protection zones in urban low-rise residential areas is essential to enable safer walking conditions, safeguard playgrounds and create more activities for children. Improving the walking environment is needed considering these spaces are frequently used by children. Safeguarding playgrounds to better monitor children’s activities, control access to criminals, and strengthen territoriality around them would contribute to a more secure space. Lastly, strengthening various local activities for the public and its residents would also significantly help to foster a safer environment in preventing crime towards children.