Journal of
the Architectural Institute of Korea

  • ISSN : 2733-6239(Print)
  • ISSN : 2733-6247(Online)

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Diagnosis of Facilities Vulnerable to Coronavirus-19 Infection

손동화(Shon, Donghwa) ; 이예진(Lee, Yejin)

The COVID-19 virus has undergone several mutations, and the disease has continued to affect people's daily lives since the outbreak in December 2019. Korea has been globally acknowledged as an exemplary country for its general response to pandemics, with immediate and effective quarantine conditions, such as preemptive diagnostic tests and social distancing. However, reflecting on the COVID-19 quarantine experience over the past two years, there have been problems such as unexpected outbreaks involving large number of confirmed cases. In addition to the limitations of the physical environment, vulnerabilities have arisen in the sociocultural relationships of these spaces with quarantine policies and issues. Therefore, this study aims to examine the vulnerable infectious spaces during the COVID-19 pandemic for the two-year period of the outbreak and examine the causes and countermeasures of vulnerabilities based on a sociocultural relationship review. After collecting daily data on COVID-19 infections in Seoul for two years, the number of confirmed cases according to major facilities and sociocultural issues are presented. We attempt to diagnose space vulnerabilities through sociocultural relationships. This study examines their relationship by addressing quarantine policies, behavioral and psychological problems, and social issues. Sociocultural factors are reviewed considering the government's COVID-19 quarantine policy, media information collection, and keyword analyses. Based on the analysis results, the physical characteristics of vulnerable COVID-19 spaces are closely related to the density and overlap owing to various programs and spaces in the facility. With respect to sociocultural characteristics, changes from old customs to short-term popular cultures might develop unpredictable situations, resulting in greater or fewer confirmed cases than expected. The study concludes that vulnerable COVID-19 spaces are affected by physical characteristics and sociocultural influences. Therefore, social and cultural characteristics should be considered in the event of a similar epidemic.

Environmental Planning Elements of Public Space for the Improvement of Urban Publicness From the Perspective of Small Households

오지은(Oh, Jieun) ; 하미경(Ha, Mikyoung) ; 변기동(Byun, Gidong)

This study aims to investigate the perception of publicness in urban spaces from the viewpoint of small households, which are the main household type in modern society. Environmental planning factors in public spaces were identified to potentially enhance the publicness of urban spaces and ultimately improve the quality of life for people residing in urban areas. Through research, it was discovered that small households highly value publicness and acknowledge its importance in enhancing the overall quality of life. However, it also revealed that publicness was not adequately maintained in such areas. To address this issue, this study emphasized the significance of urban public spaces that are commonly utilized in everyday life to improve publicness. Several public space types that small households value were identified as being medical facilities, street spaces, transportation facilities, welfare facilities, and information and culture facilities. Environmental planning factors to enhance the publicness of individual public spaces were derived through correlation analysis of detailed publicness evaluation factors such as connectivity, accessibility, openness, convenience, amenity, placeness, sustainability, and public space types. The findings of this study are anticipated to serve as fundamental data for future strategies that reflect social structural changes and improve the publicness of urban spaces. By enhancing the publicness of urban spaces, this study expects to boost the quality of life for individuals and society overall.

The Current Status of Residential Facilities of Foreign Workers in Gyeonggi-do

남지현(Nam, Jee-Hyun) ; 조희은(Jo, Hee-Eun)

This study examines laws and policies on the provision of housing for foreign workers and the status and problems of foreign workers’ accommodations in Gyeonggi province to identify the fundamental reason behind recurring accidents in rural areas. The data for this study was obtained from a survey conducted by the Gyeonggi-do Foreigner Policy Division based on the MEL’s data on foreign workers’ accommodations compiled from September to November 2020 that was published as Residential Environment for Foreign Workers in Farming and Fishing villages: Actual Condition Survey Results and Improvement Plan. The principles for providing workers’ accommodations stipulated in Korean law was compared with the criteria and requirements set forth by international organizations and other countries; Korean law seemed more focused on setting the minimum requirements for workers’ accommodations. In contrast, international standards for adequate housing and workers’ housing standards of other countries not only set minimum requirements, but also considered various factors that could enhance a workers’ living, quality of life and quarantee equal treatment of foreign workers that included the demand for different types of housing, location, access to cultural facilities, and supplementary facilities. vironment and quality of life and guarantee equal treatment of foreign workers, including the demand for different types of housing, location, access to cultural facilities, and supplementary facilities. Upon analysis of the data on foreign workers’ residential facilities in Gyeonggi Province, it was revealed that the biggest problem was where the housing facilities were located. Around 43% or 800 sites of the foreign workers’ accommodations were built on farmland, which is a violation of the Farmland Act.

Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE) of Remodeled and Reconstructed Apartment Housing

곽보윤(Kirk, Boyun) ; 이소연(Lee, Soyeon)

The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the aspects of remodeled and reconstructed apartment housing units with which users are satisfied or dissatisfied. Five apartment housing units with an area of 85 m² more or less remodeled between 2007 and 2013 in Seoul and five reconstructed apartment housing units also in Seoul with a similar size and reconstruction completion time were selected. A comparative analysis was conducted of characteristics appearing in unit household floor plans. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) was conducted on occupants over the age of 19 who had lived in each housing unit for more than a year. The floor-plan analysis revealed that the number of bays was higher in the reconstructed apartment housing units; the remodeled apartment building having a longer vertical shape, and the reconstructed apartment building had a slightly longer horizontal shape. The area of the private space was larger for the reconstructed housing units, and the area of the public space was larger for the remodeled housing units. The POE revealed that the overall satisfaction average was higher for the reconstructed apartment housing units. As for the eight items pertaining to natural lighting, air quality in general, natural ventilation, temperature in summer, temperature in general, layout and size of personal space, interaction between family members, and overall satisfaction, satisfaction was relatively high for reconstructed apartment housing units. For the visual privacy item, the satisfaction of the remodeled apartment building was relatively high. There was a significant difference between remodeled housing units and restructured housing units, particularly in satisfaction related to natural ventilation and natural lighting. The regression analysis indicated that natural lighting had the most significant influence of any factor on overall satisfaction. These results could improve the remodeling of apartment housing in the future.

Operation Possibilities of a Dementia Prevention Program in Senior Citizens of Nam-gu, Gwangju

송명종(Song, Myung-Jong) ; 송정석(Song, Jeong-Seok) ; 이효원(Lee, Hyo-Won)

The operation program of leisure welfare facilities for the elderly is attempting to develop programs related to health maintenance and informatization education that suit the characteristics of the area where a facility and operating entity are located and that address the leisure needs of the elderly. However, the current programs being operated and developed are centered on suppliers rather than on the current status of a facility and its users. Therefore, it is necessary to review in terms of facility status and selection of users in the operation of a dementia prevention program at existing senior citizen centers planned for the 2020 Ministry of Health and Welfare project for the elderly. This study calculated the area required to operate a program concerning the scope of elderly physical activity and the size of existing facilities in senior citizen centers. The purpose is to identify the types of dementia prevention programs for the elderly and to review whether the planned program can be operated

The Plan Characteristics of Flat and Tower Type Apartments Using Quantitative Spatial Analysis Techniques

신정은(Shin, Jeong-Eun) ; 임호균(Lim, Ho-Kyun)

Apartments have become the most popular form of housing in Korea and are structurally classified into flat and tower types. Previous studies have mostly focused on comparing these two types as it relates to energy and sunlight. Therefore, this study aims to quantitatively analyze the structural differences between the two types using space syntax and visibility graph analysis. The area ratio by spatial configuration and spatial configuration was identified to understand the spatial characteristics of the flat and tower type apartments. After that, Isovist, J-Graph, and visual integration of space syntax were analyzed using a Depth map. The analysis results revealed the spatial composition of the flat type was monotonous and the tower type showed various characteristics of the composition. The area ratio by spatial composition had no significant difference in other spaces, but in the living room area, the tower type had a significantly larger area than the flat type. Concerning the Isovist, it was found that the flat type area had a few visible areas, and the tower type relatively had many visually recognized areas. The J-Graph analysis revealed that the flat type had the characteristics of a simple spatial structure while the tower type had the characteristics of a complex spatial structure. Finally, the visual integration analysis results showed that the flat type had the characteristics of an open structure whereas the tower type had the characteristics of a closed structure. This study was meaningful in that it quantitatively compared and analyzed the flat and tower type apartments using space syntax and visibility graph analysis to analyze the topological importance of space and identify the differences.

Architectural Type and Design Characteristics of Undersea Architecture

정원조(Jung, Won-Jo)

In recent years, global warming has accelerated sea level rise, climate change and coastal erosion; the reality of a shortage of safe land use space is at hand. On the other hand, the demand for more active utilization of marine space has continuously been increasing due to the rising national income level and increasing industrial development pressure. To actively utilize marine space, it is necessary to consider a comprehensive utilization plan that includes the sea, under the sea, and the seabed. However, existing ocean space utilization methods are mainly focused on the coast and the sea; there is no research on three-dimensional space utilization including the subsea. Therefore, in this research, the types and design characteristics of subsea architecture space utilization cases world-wide was investigated and analyzed. As a result, it was found that the tourism type had the highest percentage of usage, and the average installed water depth was 5.1 m for the tourist type and 27.8 m for the research type. In terms of location and timing, the research type was installed mainly in the United States from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s, and the tourism type was evenly distributed over the world's marine tourist destinations from 1996 to 2005. Additionally, the design characteristics of undersea architectures were mostly single-story and had a flat composition in consideration of the circulation according to the use. Space composition can be mainly divided into main space, support space, and public space; the detailed purpose may change depending on the purpose of use.

Satisfaction and Needs for a Parenting-Friendly Residential Environment of Child-Rearing Households

조현주(Cho, Hyun-Ju) ; 이상운(Lee, Sang-Un)

In this study, the satisfaction and needs of child-rearing households concerning parenting-friendly housing environments in Japan and Korea were compared and analyzed. Utilizing quota sampling, an online panel survey was conducted on child-rearing households in Seoul and Tokyo in December 2020 to compare the characteristics of Korean and Japanese urban dwellers, respectively. The results indicated a difference in satisfaction for individual housing units while demands for design elements related to health and safety were common in both Korea and Japan. The need for exterior spaces where children could safely engage in outdoor activities within housing complexes was high in both countries. Regarding the location environment, the demand for an educational environment was high in Korea, whereas the demand for proximity to commercial facilities was high in Japan. Therefore, the diverse preferences of the two nations regarding individual housing units, exterior spaces, and the location environment must be considered when planning and constructing housing complexes.

A Study on Economic Feasibility Evaluation by Improving the Energy Saving Performance of Green Remodeling Buildings Employing the Interests Support Program in Private Sectors

정유미(Jung, Ue-mee) ; 손동욱(Sohn, Dong-wook) ; 김소연(Kim So-yeon) ; 장경은(Jang Kyung-Eun) ; 박성남(Park, Sung-nam) ; 권혜인(Kwon, Hye-in) ; 문보람(Moon, Bo-ram)

The world is facing climate change due to numerous human activities and industrialization, which greatly damages the ecosystem, food security, water supply, and health systems. To this end, the ‘2050 Carbon Neutral Scenario’ was established for each industry, transportation, and building sector, and performance improvement of existing buildings(a.k.a. Green Remodeling) is suggested as an essential energy efficiency improvement strategy to reduce energy demand and greenhouse gas. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport has been conducting a "Private Interest Support Project" to support private finance loans for high initial performance improvement construction costs, including installation of high-efficiency cooling and heating systems, from 2013 to the present. Therefore, this study aims to quantitatively evaluate the economic feasibility of each type of private building that has completed green remodeling, it is necessary to recognize the economic problems and profitability of private buildings. As a result of analyzing the cost benefits of green remodeling by building type, the B/C ratio was estimated for single-family housings (1.162), multi-family housings (0.384), and non-residential buildings (0.7) respectively. As an implication, it is necessary to gradually make green remodeling mandatory for aging buildings in the private sector according to the current situation, such as gradually realizing mandatory in the public. The change in policies can increase accessibility to the private sector and reduce the financial burden by easing the complex procedures and loan interest burdens that are currently raised as the main problems by builders or private companies.

A Study on the Guidelines for Prevention of Infectious Diseases in the Pre-Planning Stage of Green Smart School

정지원(Jeong, Ji-Won) ; 김하영(Kim, Ha-Yeong) ; 이형연(Lee, Hyeong-Yeon) ; 장정우(Jang, Jeong-Woo) ; 정종근(Jeong, Jong-Keun) ; 유해연(Yoo, Hae-Yeon)

With the outbreak of COVID-19, various facilities have attempted to prevent infectious diseases through software methods. In particular, educational facilities have coped with infectious diseases by controlling the number of students attending school, having non-face-to-face classes, installing partitions, and preventing unspecified people from using spaces. This response has had limitations in that when another infectious disease later occurs, there is no choice but to respond only in the same way again. In addition, the pre-planning stage becomes essential, and as the Education Facility Act is revised, the design technique of infection prevention should be applied first. Therefore, this study designed a space plan from an architectural perspective to implement a future curriculum based on the Green Smart School project and prevent infectious diseases in high schools where space changes are essential due to the high school credit system. Furthermore, detailed design guidelines were prepared so that they could be applied in the pre-planning research stage.