Journal of
the Architectural Institute of Korea

Monthly
  • ISSN : 2733-6239(Print)
  • ISSN : 2733-6247(Online)

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Monitoring Results and Implications of the Hanok Professionals Training Project

김해리(Kim, Hae-Ri) ; 김보람(Kim, Bo-Ram)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.3

The purpose of this study is to analyze the current status and problems of the Ministry of Land, "Hanok Professionals Training Project", and to discuss improvement directions. In this study, a structured questionnaire was created to identify the perceptions of trainees, surveyed education demand and satisfaction, and analyzed education status and problems. The conclusion of this study is as follows: 1.When selecting trainees, it is desirable to make it mandatory to be "working-level workers in the construction sector" in the requirements of the target. 2.To respond to trainee demand, hands-on education should be strengthened and specific complaints about educational facilities and equipment should be investigated. 3.In order to increase the effectiveness of education, it is necessary to consider introducing an actual Hanok construction project into the curriculum. In addition, in order to produce better educational effects in the future, it is necessary to prepare specific guidelines for the educational curriculum.

The Planning Characteristics of Junction space between Houses and Streets Applied to Multi-family Housing in Korea

김현주(Kim, Hyun-Ju)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.13

Street spaces in low-rise residential areas are places where various lifestyle activities of residents occur. So it is very important how the buildings and street relate to each other. It focused on the possibility of multi-family housing as an urban alternative housing, and tried to examine the relationship with the street. Therefore, in this study, I analyze and derive characteristics of the planning elements of street junction space between houses and street applied to multi-family housing, which were published in architectural magazines for the past five years. First, in the aspect of street space, it was analyzed how the characteristics of parcels in contact with the streets were defined. The various planning elements of the transition space between the street and the entrance, and the openness of the separation space from adjacent site connected to the pilotis accommodates the logic focused on legal regulations and commercial values. It can be explained as an attempt considering communication with streets and surrounding area. The planning that most accommodates the character of street is the facility program on the first floor. Commercial facilities and community facilities were planned for the active ‘collection road’ and ‘local road’ in the neighborhood residential area, and rental offices or alpha rooms were planned for ‘residential alley’ with private atmosphere. The more public the street was, the more clearly the entrance to the upper residential area was separated from the commercial space in terms of location, shape and space. Second, in the aspect of architectural exterior, the shape and spatial composition of the building connected to the street were examined. The architect used the legal constraints and the design logic to pursue the maximum volume. Nevertheless, from the perspective of pedestrians, it was possible to plan the lower floors with an open atmosphere differentiated from the surroundings. And by using the slope shape and different finishing materials, the upper part corresponding to the urban landscape was created. The spaces and gaps created by the difference in volume and shape of the lower and upper floors were also used as an intermediary space for communication between residents and neighbors.

The Categorization of Vacant Spaces in Declining Areas for Allocating Disaster Relief Shelters

이진경(Lee, Jin-Kyoung) ; 지봉근(Ji, Bong-Keun) ; 김영욱(Kim, Young-Ook)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.25

The purpose of the research is the categorization of vacant spaces located in declining areas, in order to apply it for allocating disaster relief shelters. The scope of the research is vacant spaces within declining areas where the areas are designated as urban regeneration project areas. The procedure of the research is as follows: firstly, the definitions and concepts of declining area and vacant spaces are resolved and the method of using a vacant building resource as a shelter is clarified through literature review. Secondly, based on area characteristics, six cases are extracted among declining area which were selected as a 2018th urban regeneration project area. Then, the usability and distribution of the vacant spaces included in the cases are investigated. Thirdly, vacant spaces are categorized by characteristics of declining areas. Finally, the method of using vacant spaces as a shelter by considering the characteristics of declining areas is studied.

An Analysis of the Interior Landscape of Subway Station for the Improvement of Index of Greenness in Subway Station Space

김원지(Kim, Won-Ji) ; 이태경(Lee, Tae-Kyung)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.35

This study aims to find improvement points by investigating and analyzing the characteristic of interior landscape installation inside Busan subway stations space, and use the result as basic data for constituents of interior landscape model for improving index of greenness of subway stations space. For the aforementioned, this study made a visit to 20 targeted subway stations and took photos of the present conditions of landscape inside interior space, measuring interior landscape installation area using a tape measure, and investigated growing environment by using thermometer·hygrometer and illuminometer. For collected data, this study analyzed index of greenness and interior landscape using Adobe Photoshop CS6 and SPSS Statistics 25 which is a statistical analysis program. The results are as follows. First, for improvement of the index of greenness of subway stations space, it is necessary to design light conditions of interior space as 500lx or above, and for plants, it is also necessary to consider species that can be grown at 5℃ or below. Second, it would be desirable to create interior landscape using the method of relaxation style or complex style for enabling visitors to use pleasantly and conveniently. Third, it is necessary to make interior be harmonized with plants using ornament and facility made of natural materials. Fourth, more active landscaping methods such as tree planting type and hanging type can be introduced considering scale and shape of space where landscaping is available inside subway stations. This study made comprehensive investigation and analysis on the characteristic of interior landscape according to the types after classifying subway stations space as 4 types depending on the physical characteristics of environment (shape, area and the degree of congestion of subway stations), which is considered significant in the way that it has set the direction for improvement of interior landscape environment for qualitative improvement of the index of greenness, and is expected to be used as basic data for planning and improvement of interior landscape inside subway stations space.

A Study on the Discourse and Concept of National Housing in the 1940s and 1950s

신운경(Shin, Woon-Kyung)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.47

This study examined the developmental aspects and conceptual changes of the discourse of national housing, which was not covered in the previous studies, based on the conceptual historical understanding of the ‘nation’ in the 1940s and 1950s. This is meaningful in that it expanded the scope of awareness of housing research in Korea and attempted a historical and fundamental approach to national housing. The discourse of national housing during the Japanese colonial period in the 1940s began to be formed as part of the wartime mobilization system, and through modern devices, the public recognized themselves as subjects of Japanese Empire and voluntarily conformed to new housing norms. After liberation, Korean society required a housing model reflecting new life that corresponds to the new national system, and it was converted into a national housing with a demonstration character which was realized as it was actually built during the US military period. In the 1950s, the national housing in the Rhee Syngman Government was diluted the discourse of "universal housing" in the past and it was understood as a mixed meaning of the fragmented concepts reflecting the special times. The concept of national housing began as a concept of realistic and practical housing norms for the subjects of Japanese Empire in the 1940s. After liberation, it was changed to the concept of a universal new living housing model with an ideal character that conforms to the new national system. During the Rhee Syngman Government in the 1950s, the concept of national housing changed into a multi-layered type of housing that revealed chaotic times of ideological conflicts between the left and right, national reconstruction, and economic revival before and after the Korean War.

A Study on the Architectural Publicity of the Cost Guard Substation

신대영(Shin, Dae-Young) ; 안웅희(Ahn, Woong-Hee)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.59

This study is about the architectural publicness of cost guard substation located in Busan's fishing port. The development of cities are causing fishing villages to be included in cities, and the phenomenon of being neglected or killed in functional incongruity is being witnessed. In this situation, interest in the ocean is increasing due to the increase in individual leisure time, and it is attracting attention as a center of marine tourism. In line with this, the government is pushing ahead with its fishing port development policy, but discussions on qualitative improvement and understanding of public services and public spaces have not been made due to the plan focused on aesthetic aspects and programs. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze and evaluate the Busan cost guard substation from the perspective of the 'architectural publicness' discussed in fishing ports. Analyzing cost guard substation by dividing them into internal and external public elements, and discuss how to implement architectural publicness from the wide context to the elements of interior space. Based on this, the purpose of the study is to make suggestions on how to implement future-oriented publicness, and this study is meaningful in that it looked at public buildings in Busan from the perspective of architectural publicness.

A Study on the Planning Factors of Modular Housing through the Post-Occupancy Evaluation

임석호(Lim, Seok-Ho) ; 정재희(Chung, Jae Hee) ; 설욱제(Seol, Wook-Je) ; 허준우(Heo, Junu)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.67

This study aims to derive planning factors for modular housing planning by analyzing residents recognition of modular housing and housing satisfaction through the post-occupancy evaluation of Happy House in Dujeong-dong, Cheonan, completed in 2019 using the modular construction method. For this purpose, prior research surveys, theoretical investigations, and user surveys and interviews for post-occupancy evaluation were conducted. Then, along with the housing satisfaction analysis, the importance-satisfaction analysis for housing performance, housing plan, and surrounding environment was conducted to derive variables that have a significant influence on housing satisfaction. As a conclusion, planning factors were derived to increase satisfaction with the modular housing plan. It is expected that the results of this study can be used as basic data for planning factors that can increase the residential satisfaction of residents when designing modular housing in the future.

An Exploratory Analysis of the Real-time Evacuation Route Algorithm and Hybrid Spatial Representation Method

김민석(Kim, Minseok) ; 한규빈(Han, Gyu Bin) ; 차지은(Cha, Jieun) ; 김영선(Kim, Youngsun) ; 박지현(Park, Jihyeon)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.77

The purpose of this study is to propose an optimized spatial representation method for the real-time evacuation route search. First, the algorithm and spatial representation of route search used in previous studies are investigated. Based on this, Dijkstra algorithm and A* algorithm were selected to be suitable for real-time evacuation route search, and each algorithm was applied to the regular grid method and the node-link method. Also, for the efficient search of real-time evacuation routes in terms of architectural planning, this study proposed a hybrid spatial representation method that combines the regular grid method and the node-link method. The hybrid spatial representation method was discussed by analyzing its significance in terms of systematic aspects and the quality of evacuation routes.

Development of Evaluation System for Universal Design Environment as the User-Oriented Perspective

박청호(Park, Cheong-Ho)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.87

This study is a follow-up to the work of developing quantitative evaluation indicators for universal design, and the purpose was to develop a user-oriented evaluation system unlike preceding research focused on experts. To this end, the study was conducted using 5-principles, 15-components, and 14-user types as a result of the previous research. As a result of the AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) analysis, the disabled showed high weighted values focusing on convenience and safety, while The disadvantaged person to mobility and the person not disadvantageous to mobility showed high weighted values centered on safety in 5-principles. It is seems to be caused by the difference between the disabled and the non-disabled. The disabled, the disadvantaged person to mobility, and he person not disadvantageous to mobility showed high importance in safety and convenience, while the experts showed high importance in equity and safety. This has led to confirmation that there are different perspectives between users and professionals. For the 15-components to be used as user-oriented evaluation indicators, user groups and experts showed contrasting forms for the weighted values of convenient space & materials, low physical effort, and maintainability. In addition, the degree of importance of users has been significantly higher for safety and crime prevention. As a result, it reaffirmed that there is a gap between users and experts. Based on the above results, this study presented evaluation indicators and score reflecting the results of the difference in a global weighted value for 3-user groups, and it is meaningful as the first step in transitioning to a quantitative evaluation system that reflects the user's view of maintaining the concept of universal design.

The Influence of Railway Formation and Development on Land Spatial Structure in Northeast China(1898-1945)

노경민(Lho, Kyung-Min)

https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2021.37.1.95

This study examines the expansion of the railway transportation system according to the formation and changes of the operating organization of Chinese Eastern Railway Southern Line, the influence of railway on the spatial structure of Northeast China by comparing the features with the Colonial Transportation Geography Model. The railway center was moved to Harbin, Dalian, Fengtian according to the changes of the operating organization, and the stronghold became the center for performing railway policies and urban planning in Northeast China. Railway zones were established along the railway, similar to foreign concessions. Political, economic, and transportation centers were reorganized around the railway hub center, which led to the concentration of urban development among other cities. As a result of comparing the Rimmer model(1977) and Northeast China, the commonality are the followings; the existing transportation system were formed around the coastal, along the river, and land road built by empire before colonization. In the early stage of colonization, the modern transportation system was built by connecting the port to the inland city by railway. In the advanced stage of colonization, the administration centers were transferred by the intention of the colonial authorities. The difference are the followings; first, the permanent western base was the port city in the Rimmer model, but in Northeast China there were two permanent bases: one inland city and one port city, Harbin and Dalian. Secondly, in the model the permanent base becomes the new capital, however in Northeast China, the inland city along the railway became the new capital due to political and geographical reasons. Finally, in the model, the importance of the existing ceremonial city inclines through in the colonial process, while in Northeast China, ceremonial cities develop by transforming into a new functional city, such as an industrial city.