Title The Study on the Elements of Architectural Composition and the Arrangement of Qibla in the Great Mosque of Cordoba
Authors 홍성우(Hong, Seong-Woo)
DOI https://doi.org/10.5659/JAIK.2020.36.9.71
Page pp.71-78
ISSN 2733-6247
Keywords mosque; Cordoba; qibla; Islamic architecture
Abstract The creation of their own monumental architecture within a century after the birth of Islamic religion is unprecedented in the history of architecture. The identity of Islamic architecture was completed through the passage of thousands of years with the compromise of various regional cultures. The Great Mosque of Cordoba in Spain, embraced the architectural tradition in the conquered area, is one of the most monumental buildings that symbolized the excellence of their faith. In this paper, therefore, we investigated the relationship between the architectural components of the Great Mosque of Cordoba, which developed into a unique Islamic style and the regional architectural tradition. We also analyzed the factors that determine the direction of Qibla placement. The Great Mosque of Cordoba, a representative building of medieval architecture as well as of Islamic architecture, was analyzed as having the following characteristics by accommodating the local architectural elements and the method of constructing the Christian church during the extension period. The two-tier arcade system and the alternation of stone and brick colors of arches were induced with reference to the Roman aqueducts in Merida, Spain, The Visigothic horseshoe arch has become a representative architectural element of Islamic architecture in Spain and North Africa since the construction of the Cordoba Mosque. They show how Muslims transformed the architectural elements of the conquered regions into their own original architectural forms. The interior of the building with decorating the three bays in front of the mihrab was extended in the longitudinal direction so that applied the hierarchical arrangement of Christianity. The cross-arch of the multifoil arch and mukarnas dome, which suggest to have influenced the development of the rib vault and point arch of the Gothic architecture, seems to be the result of the mutual exchange between Islam and Christianity. Finally, the qibla of the Cordoba Mosque is about 51° south of Mecca and does not face the Kabba. Because it is possible to measure the direction of the qibla since the 9th century, thus, they probably built the qibla wall according to the road direction of the Roman city as the method of Umayyad tradition.