Chapter 2 Misconduct (Definition, Verification, Measure)
Article 1 (Scope of Research Misconducts)
Research misconduct (hereinafter referred to as “misconduct”) refers to plagiarism, falsification, and unfair indication of authors, duplicated research, duplicated publication, false public statement, improper authorship, obstruction of investigation into misconduct, or attack on informants of such misconduct, that occur in the course of proposal, performance, reports, and announcement of research articles.
Article 2 (Definition of Research Misconducts)
① “Fabrication” is to fabricate data or research results that do not exist.
② “Falsification” is to manipulate research materials, equipment or processes, etc. or modify or delete data intentionally, leading to distortion of research content and results.
③ “Plagiarism” is a wrongful appropriation, and stealing and publication of ideas, research content, results of another author without due authorization or references, and the various types of plagiarism are defined as follows.
- (Idea plagiarism) Idea plagiarism refers to stealing of the ideas (explanations, theories, conclusions, hypotheses, or metaphors of another author by borrowing or modifying them in entirety or in part without acknowledging the author. In general, authors must indicate their sources of ideas in footnotes or citations, and authors should not use in their own research ideas made available to them through peer reviews of research proposals or contributions of other authors.
- (Verbatim plagiarism) “Verbatim plagiarism” refers to copying of parts of texts, formulas, diagrams, tables, and pictures of another author without indicating their source.
- (Mosaic plagiarism) “Mosaic plagiarism” refers to a combination of parts of texts, formulas, diagrams, tables and pictures of others, addition or insertion of additional content to them, or replacement of words with synonyms without disclosing their original sources and authors.
- (Self-plagiarism) “Self-plagiarism” refers to the use of content from an author’s previous publications without disclosing the source.
④ “Unfair indication of authors” refers to not granting authorship to researchers who made scientific, technological contributions to the content and results of a research article without due grounds, or granting authorship to persons who did not make scientific and technological contributions.
⑤ “Duplicated research” refers to splitting a research topic into two or more research projects.
⑥ “Duplicated publications” refers to publishing articles with the same content in two or more academic journals, and is defined as each of the following cases.
- Overlapping of the same content in a current publication and previous publications of the same author despite current publication containing texts exhibiting slightly different views from previously published publications or employing slightly different analysis of previously published data.
- Depending on the stage of research, presenting an article first to the KIIEE conferences, and later submitting the same article that has been further refined to the KIIEE journal. However, the article to be submitted to the journal may provide in footnotes or bibliography, etc., details regarding the KIEE academic conference where the initial version of the article was presented.
⑦ “False public statement” refers to a false representation of the education, career, qualifications, research results and history, etc. of an author.
Article 3 (Unethical Research Act)
The following acts are instances of acts that are ethically inappropriate.
① Presentation of a research article at a conference or seminar without duly disclosing the article is collaborative research
② Announcement of research results to the media without going through due verification procedure
③ Distortion of interpretations and expected effects of a research project to secure financial support
Article 4 (Inappropriate Writing)
The following are examples of inappropriate writing.
① Inappropriate citation of sources
② Distortion of bibliography
③ Use of abstracts while citing published articles
④ Citation of sources of articles that were not read or understood by authors
⑤ Citation of only parts of sources while heavily borrowing content from a single source
⑥ Text recycling
⑦ Division of a single article into multiple articles in order to increase the volume of research results
Article 5 (Distortion of Bibliography)
① A bibliography shall include only literature directly related to articles.
② Authors shall not include in the bibliography only literature in support of their data or theories, but shall also include literature that may contradict their views.
Article 6 (Text Recycling)
① Text recycling refers to the reuse of parts of texts, formulas, diagrams, tables, and pictures that were already carried in the author’s own previous publications.
② To reuse texts, authors shall follow standard citation practices such as use of quotation marks or a proper paraphrase to avoid breach of copyrights.
Article 7 (Other Inappropriate Acts)
The following are examples of improper acts.
① Failure to report or disclose to readers important related evidences that are not compatible with the author’s data or views
② Citation of the research of other authors that have defects in methodology, statistical procedure, or other aspects as evidence of proof
③ Intentional distortion or unclear description of research methods such as design of sampling so that other researchers cannot reproduce results
Article 8 (Reporting Allegations of Misconduct)
Alleged research misconduct may be reported to the chairman or head of an editorial committee via verbal, writing, phone or email and reports shall disclose the identity of the informant.
Article 9 (Consideration of Necessity for Investigation)
The Editorial Committee shall decide whether the reported research misconduct breaches this Regulation, and, if deemed necessary to examine the authenticity of the reported research, shall request the Board of Directors to approve installation of a Research Ethics Investigation Committee (hereinafter referred to as “investigation committee”).
Article 10 (Installation of a Research Ethics Investigation Committee and Term of the Committee Members)
① The Board of Directors shall decide to install an investigation committee proposed by the Editorial Committee when it considers it necessary and reasonable.
② The investigation committee shall comprise five to ten members including the Vice Chairs, Director for General Affairs, and Editing Director, and the investigation committee shall be formed no later than four (4) weeks after the Board of Directors’ decision.
③ The head of the investigation committee shall be appointed from among the Vice Chairs by the Chairman, and the vice head and secretary shall be selected by the investigation committee.
④ The investigation committee shall conduct investigative activities for eight (8) weeks from inauguration, and the term of members shall expire upon the termination of activities of the investigation committee.
Article 11 (Matters to be implemented by a Research Ethics Investigation Committee)
① The investigation committee shall deliberate on and decide the following matters.
- Establishment and operation of systems and rules related to research ethics
- Receipt and processing of misconduct reports
- Approval of the launch of investigation and investigation results
- Processing of research integrity verification results and subsequent measures
- Other matters regarding research ethics proposed by the head of the investigation committee
Article 12 (Verification Meeting)
① The head of the investigation committee shall call the convening of the committee meetings and shall become the chairman of the committee.
② The investigation committee meeting shall make a decision by the presence of a majority of members and the affirmative voting of the majority of members present. However, the head of the committee shall be included as among members of the committee present, but has no voting right.
③ The head of the investigation committee may replace the meetings with a written deliberation when the agenda is deemed as not significant.
④ Meetings of the investigation committee shall not be open and, when necessary, may allow the attendance of non-members to solicit their opinions.
Article 13 (Request for Attendance and Submission of Materials)
The investigation committee may request informants, respondents, witnesses and references to attend meetings, make statements, and request respondents to submit materials. If attendance is not possible, a statement that renounces the rights to make a statement shall be submitted to the head of the investigation committee.
Article 14 (Protection of Rights of Informants and Respondents and Confidentiality)
① Under any circumstances, the identity of informants shall not be disclosed either directly or indirectly, and names of informants shall not be included in an investigation results report to protect their identity except for the case where they must be disclosed.
② Until misconduct is proved, care shall be made to ensure the reputation or rights of respondents are not undermined, and efforts shall be made to restore the honor of respondents if found innocent.
③ All matters related to a report of misconduct, investigation, consideration, decision, and recommendations shall be kept confidential, and staff members who were involved in investigations directly or indirectly shall not disclose any information they acquire in the course of investigation. However, when there is a reasonable reason for disclosure, such information may be made public by the decision of the investigation committee.
Article 15 (Right to Raise Objection and Pleading)
The investigation committee shall grant both informants and respondents opportunity to raise objections or plead, and shall inform them of the relevant procedure in advance.
Article 16 (Decision)
The investigation committee shall finalize investigation content and results following objections and pleading and notify such final results to informants and respondents. In the case that investigation content and results do not agree, a decision shall be adopted by the majority of members of the investigation committee in attendance and the affirmative vote of two-thirds (2/3) of members present.
Article 17 (Measures to Be Taken)
① Investigation results shall be approved by the investigation committee and reported to the president of the KIIEE within two (2) weeks.
② In the event the investigation results of the investigation committee confirms that a respondent committed research misconduct as defined under this Regulation, president of the KIIEE may take each of the following measures, and a decision on specific measures shall be made by the resolution of the Board of Directors.
- Return of submitted articles. If already published, the articles shall be deleted or withdrawn
- Restriction on submission of articles
- Membership revocation
- Accusation to legal authority
- Other measures decided by the Board of Directors
Article 18 (Final Report of the Investigation Committee)
① The Investigation Committee shall prepare and submit a final report containing their deliberations and decisions made pursuant to Article 16 and 17 above.
② The final report shall include each of the following matters.
- Content of information reported
- Suspicious misconduct and related articles subject to investigation
- Role of respondents in the relevant research topic and results of verifying suspicions
- Relevant evidences and witnesses
- Objections and pleadings raised by informants and respondents as to investigation results
- List of the investigation committee members
Article 19 (Keeping and Disclosure of Records)
① Records of investigations shall be retained in document form for five (5) years from the closing of investigation of the KIIEE.
② Final reports may be disclosed after a decision is made. However, information related to informants, investigation committee members, witnesses, references, and other persons who offered advice may be excluded from such disclosure as it may cause disadvantage.
Article 20 (Miscellaneous)
① Matters that are not provided for under this Regulation shall follow relevant internal regulations of the KIIEE, and other remaining matters shall be considered and decided by the Board of Directors of the KIEE.
② To prevent misconduct in research and conduct education regarding research ethics, this Regulation shall be appropriately publicized through journals and other publications of the KIIEE.
- This Regulation shall take effect from June 13, 2007.
- Revision of this Regulation shall take effect from January 9, 2008.
- Revision of this Regulation shall take effect from January 9, 2013.