The Journal of
the Korean Institute of Interior Design

  • ISSN : 1229-7992(Print)
  • ISSN : 2733-6832(Online)
  • KCI Accredited Journal

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A Comparison of Summer and Winter Home Energy Cost Burdens and Perceptions Among Low-Income Older Adults: An Analytical Study

이수민(Lee, Su Min) ; 김혜연(Kim, Hye Yeun) ; 권현주(Kwon, Hyun Joo)

Due to climate change and the increase in energy costs, the number of people with heat-related illnesses is increasing among older adults. Although the government implements adequate thermal environment supporting programs, they mainly support energy costs based on income levels during winter. The purpose of this study is to compare the home energy costs, energy cost burden, energy cost burden stress level, and home thermal environment and home performance satisfaction of low-income older adults living in old houses in summer and winter. The target population of this study was senior households living in old single-family and low-rise multifamily houses located in Jingu, Busan, and a total of 50 older adults participated in the face-to-face survey. While the result of this study showed that winter home heating conditions are worse than summer, the participants lived in inadequate indoor temperatures even in the summer. It is necessary to consider expanding energy-supporting programs based on the actual condition of low-income seniors who do not currently receive home energy support policies and the thermal environment of their homes. For low-income seniors living in older homes, there is a need to not only support energy costs, but also improve home building performance over the long term. In addition, it is necessary to expand energy support policies that are concentrated in winter to summer and to support low-income seniors living in old houses who are in the gap of energy support programs. This study is expected to be referred to as a basis for future policy improvements.

A Study on the Caracteristic and Cases of Complex Cultural Space of Outsider Art

정개가(Zheng, Kai-Ge) ; 나일민(Nah, Ilmin)

(Research background and purpose) Since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights(UDHR) in Paris in 1948, stigma, discrimination, and human rights violations against people with mental disabilities are still widespread. Improving the quality of life of the disables and helping to raise social prejudice and awareness through art and culture can be a creative solution for achieving social justice and coexistence. The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics and cases of complex cultural space for outsider art (made by physically and mentally disabled people). (Reseach method) After clarifying the definition, value, and specificity of outsider art, we have categorized the characteristics of community-based complex cultural spaces for outsider art into three categories: physical, psychological, and social environment; then we have derived sub-characteristics into; accessibility, openness, safety, artistry, inclusiveness, economic feasibility, participation, education, healing, and creativity. In light of this, we have analyzed qualitatively the history, function, and programs of overseas outsider art complex cultural space cases through official space specializing in exhibition sales and archives of outsider art in a renovated psychiatric hospital, providing free artistic and creative environment regardless of genre and medium for people with mental illness and helping their cure. Scotland’s ‘Project Ability’ and Rotterdam’s ‘Galerie Atelier Herenplaats’ adopt local solidarity and coexistence as important value, helping people with mental illness unleash their inner creativity and be respected by community members as colleagues. However, most of the cases lacked the use of natural elements, scenery, and health lighting system to relieve the stress of mentally disabled people who have a strong need for stability and comfort due to delusioins, hallucinations, and disorganization symptom. There was also a lack of use of natural elements, scenery, health lighting system and audiovisual privacy. We also discovered some improvement have to be made in the organic connection and arrangement of private and public spaces to ensure communal living. (Conclusion) As such, the significance of this study is to provide knowledge on the meaning, characteristics, and cases of complex cultural spaces that provide the disabled and the socially vulnerable class with freedom of hands and imagination in their daily lives. We hope that future research will continue on the planning and design of inclusive cultural space.

A Case Study on the Regeneration Space Utilizing Closed School Applying the Planning Elements of Placemaking

김유진(Kim, Yu-Jin) ; 황연숙(Hwang, Yeon-Sook)

Recently, the school-age population has continued to decrease due to the low birth rate, and as a result, schools are closing and becoming neglected. However, the closed school considered an important resource for promoting regional revitalization from a geographical and emotional perspective. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to derive planning elements of placemaking and suggest a direction through case analysis of regeneration spaces utilizing closed school. An on-site survey was conducted by eight case studies that were reopened as cultural and experiential education spaces located in metropolitan cities in Korea. The results of this study are as follow : First, this study derived ‘Enhancement of Publicness,’ ‘Forming a Bond,’ ‘Utilization of Resources,’ ‘Convenience of Access,’ and ‘Image Formation’ as planning elements of placemaking. Second, the types of regeneration space utilizing closed school could be largely subdivided into ‘Utilization type’, ‘Location type’, and ‘Layout type’. Third, regeneration spaces utilizing closed school were largely being created through ‘remodeling’ and ‘new construction’. Fourth, the ‘Enhancement of publicness’ was most evident in planning elements of placemaking that can be applied to regeneration spaces utilizing closed school. Fifth, the ‘Image formation’ was found to be the least effective in the planning elements of placemaking applicable to regeneration spaces utilizing closed school.

Case Study through Strategic Elements of Space Branding in Specialized Libraries

김수아(Kim, Su-A) ; 황연숙(Hwang, Yeon-Sook)

Recently, the government has been advancing specialized library projects in response to the changing library environment. However, the operation of specialized libraries has been passive, highlighting the need for a branding strategy to strengthen the identity of libraries and drive space activation. One such branding strategy is space branding. The purpose of this study is to propose directions for improvement and development of specialized libraries through strategic elements of space branding. The methodology involved theoretical discussions and classification of specialized types into four categories. Based on previous research, a checklist was developed. Subsequently, case study sites were selected, and on-site inspections were conducted to analyze the cases. The analysis yielded the following results: First, specialized libraries were classified into four types: art and design, natural environment, literature and history, and social life. Second, differences existed among specialized libraries according to the four types of specialization. Third, the spatial configuration of specialized libraries was classified into information space and experiential space. Information space primarily serves the purpose of providing information, while experiential space focuses on offering differentiated experiences. Fourth, five strategic elements of space branding were derived, with the experiential element being the most prominent. Fifth, the most lacking element was the symbolic element. Therefore, elements evoking the specialized theme should be incorporated into the facade of the space, and symbolic objects should be arranged inside. Through this study, strategies to activate the spaces of specialized libraries are proposed, with hopes to contribute to their future development.

A Study on the User’s Psychological and Physiological Response Before and After COVID-19 of Third Places on Campuses

김수정(Kim, Soo-Jeong) ; 박수빈(Park, Soobeen)

In this study, we focused on Ray Oldenburg’s ‘Third Place’ concept to propose a university student lounge design that encompasses a variety of student activities to overcome the disconnection caused by social distancing during the COVID-19 period. The subjects were divided into two, students admitted before COVID-19 (Group A) and students admitted after COVID-19 (Group B). A total of 138 people participated in the survey, answering questions about CES-E, university life, third places they frequently use and the reasons for doing so, etc. Of these, 60 subjects participated in an experiment on psychological and physiological responses to spatial and color images of five representative third places. Psychological responses were measured using 8 interior concept adjectives and 5 color image adjectives, and physiological responses were measured through EEG measured by Neuro Harmony S. There was a little difference between Group A and Group B in the psychological evaluation of the spatial and color images of the third place. In the physiological response experiment, Group A responded as more ‘comfortable’ and ‘dynamical’ to spatial and color images than Group B. The reason is that Group B appears to have had less diverse experiences with third places than Group A. Therefore, a students lounge that can help university students overcome the negative effects of COVID-19 reflects the images of frequently visited third place and has a dynamic images that allows for various activities such as conversations, discussions, and entertainment as well as relaxation.

Sustainable Regeneration through the Conversion of Industrial Heritage

김수미(Kim, Soomi)

This study is to harmonize the value and effectiveness toward the regeneration of local heritage from the perspective of sustainability. Through the cases abandoned as idle industrial facilities and then converted into new cultural spaces, a sustainable industrial heritage can be suggested. Sustainable regeneration strategies through the conversion is embodied as follows. First, securing publicity by establishing new relationships; second, connection between the past and present through an emotional approach; and third, re-implementation of space through conversion. In conclusion, organic combination with urban space through new relationships can lead to revitalization of the surrounding area. The connection between the past and the present through an emotional approach can make everyone sympathize with the intention to preserve and regenerate industrial heritage.

An Evaluation of Consumer Spatial Experience According to Branded Virtual Reality Environment Types

박정은(Park, Jung Eun)

Virtual shopping environments offer highly immersive experiences, providing inspiration and empowerment to consumers. Services utilizing these technologies can significantly enhance consumer experiences and foster positive perceptions of businesses. With the continuous advancement of VR devices and an increasing user, the development of virtual environment content is becoming increasingly crucial. Particularly, the virtual environment extends beyond physical space, offering infinite experiential possibilities, necessitating research into its spatial experiential aspects. This study categorizes brand virtual environment content into realistic and unrealistic environments according to similarity to reality and conducted an experiment by setting each type of brand content as a stimulus. 102 participants engaged with the virtual environments and completed an experience questionnaire. Spatial presence, flow, and brand attitude data were collected and analyzed as variables for experience evaluation. The results indicate a high level of spatial presence in the unrealistic environment, with no significant difference observed in flow experience and brand attitude between the two environments. Additionally, spatial presence within the virtual environment was found to positively influence brand attitude. The purpose of this research is to provide a content development guide that can enhance user experience and improve marketing efficiency through analysis of the brand virtual environment.

Enhancing Hospital Environments with Nature Contact

김나연(Kim, Nayeon)

This study explores the effects of contact with nature on visual attention in the hospital environment. Using eye-tracking technology within a virtual reality (VR) setting, this paper investigates the influence of biophilic design on visual attention in patient rooms. Grounded in Attention Restoration Theory (ART), it examines whether integrating natural elements into patient room designs can improve cognitive functions by reducing mental fatigue. The study employed a between-subjects design, with 63 participants being assigned into three groups to evaluate the effects of varied biophilic design interventions: direct nature experience with living plant walls, indirect experience through digital media representations, and a blend of both. Participants experienced a patient room simulation through a VR display, during which data on fixation-based metrics (Dwell Time, Fixation Count, Time to First Fixation) and saccade-based metrics (Average Saccade Amplitude, Peak Velocity of Average Saccade) were collected. These five eye-tracking metrics were analyzed in relation to designated Areas of Interest in the patient room design. The findings indicated a significant increase in visual attention in rooms with biophilic elements compared to a non-biophilic control, supporting ART’s premise that natural elements draw attention and aid cognitive restoration. Direct nature experiences garnered more attention than indirect ones, underscoring the value of contact with real nature. This research contributes to the application of ART in healthcare environments by emphasizing the importance of incorporating biophilic elements into hospital design and offering evidence-based design insights.

Preserving the Spirit of Place in Cultural Regeneration of Modern Industrial Heritage Sites

조뢰(ZHAO, LEI) ; 나일민(Nah, Ilmin)

The adjustments in the global industry structure and the homogenization of urban landscape have led to the destruction of modern industrial sites, resulting in a loss of the sense of belonging among local communities. The late 90s was a crucial period where many international projects to regenerate industrial heritage sites were initiated while keeping the site’s spiritual significance to the local community. In the current and former communist countries, this phenomenon was even more pronounced, as unrestricted growth broke down with the fall of the ruling parties of former communist governments, and the traditional heavy industries of some countries went into decline in favor of new technological and economic sectors and the emergence of democratic governments. The purpose of this study is to provide urban designers with a sustainable methodology to preserve the spirit of place when it comes to the cultural mediation of modern industrial heritage sites. After clarifying the definition of the spirit of place and modern industrial heritage sites, we categorized two spatial elements that constitute the spirit of place by relying on the case of Tate Modern project ? for it has been undoubtedly successful, evidenced by the sheer amount of physical change: the orientation (physical and functional characteristic); the identification (historical lineage and cultural symbols). Finally, from studying relevant projects carried out in China, Germany and Romania, we verified the sub-elements to embody the spirit of place in spatial design: Geographical, Functionality, Radiation, Mnemonic, Symbolic, Participatory. These cases remonstrated that the common features are (1) to respect the relationship and cultural lineage of the existing building to the surrounding fabric; (2) to reflect materially the visual and physical symbols with the intention to understand the industrial past, rather than destroying it; (3) to utilize modern interactive and multi-sensorial technologies to attract visitors; (4) the participation of local communities in design and reuse of the site was found to be crucial. This research thus demonstrates that while maintaining the existing site as much as possible, the spirit of the place can be preserved and recreated in a sustainable way, inspiring the future “imagined community”.

Exploring Affordance Design Characteristics in Augmented Reality(AR) Applications for Home Interior Design

한유진(Han, Yoojin) ; 황지현(Hwang, Ji-Hyoun)

With the COVID-19 pandemic, interest in home interiors has increased and various mobile applications using augmented reality(AR) have emerged to support home interiors. However, AR applications still have limitations in terms of immersion and reality. In this context, this study aims to suggest a direction for enhancing the active participation of users by investigating the affordance in AR applications for home interior design. After surveying the theory of affordance design, items were prepared for a case study based on Hartson’s four types of affordances. Then, four representative augmented reality-based home interior applications were analyzed using the items. The results of this study demonstrated that it is necessary to provide a detailed guide on how to use it in the beginning step in terms of cognitive affordance. In addition, it is necessary to enhance physical affordance to prevent unexpected errors that appear when implementing augmented reality technology. Above all, augmented reality should be technically supplemented, and rich sensory affordances such as sound and haptics should be added to increase immersion and reality. Finally, functional affordance should be enhanced by adding sufficient help functions step by step. This study will ultimately contribute to designing user-centered experiences in home interiors by utilizing augmented reality technology.