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Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute

J Korea Inst. Struct. Maint. Insp.
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  • Korea Citation Index (KCI)

인장하중 및 반복하중을 받는 강재 스프링의 변형 성능 평가 Evaluation of Deformation Capacity of Various Steel Springs Subjected to Tensile Loading or Uniaxial Cyclic Loading

권희용(Hee-Yong Kwon) ; 황승현(Seung-Hyeon Hwang) ; 양근혁(Keun-Hyeok Yang) ; 김상희(Sanghee Kim) ; 최용수(Yong-Soo Choi)

In this study, to evaluate the possibility of using a steel spring as a displacement-dependent damping device, tensile loading and cyclic loading tests were performed. The main experimental variables were the type of steel (SAE9254 and SS275), the spring constant (700 N/mm, 1,000 N/mm, and 1,400 N/mm), and the presence or absence of heat treatment for SAE9254. As a result of the tensile test, the ratios of the measured spring constant to the design spring constant of the steel springs made with SAE9254 ranged from 1.08 to 1.13, while the ratios of the design spring constant and the measured spring constant of the steel springs made with SS275 ranged from 0.86 to 0.97. After yielding, the slope values of the load-displacement curve of the SAE9254 with/without heat treatment were about 240~251 N/mm and 92 N/mm, respectively, but the slope values of the load-displacement response of SS275 were almost zero. According to the uniaxial cyclic loading test results, all specimens were satisfied with three conditions for a displacement-dependent damping device in KDS 41 17 00 (2019): the maximum force and minimum force at zero displacement, the maximum force and minimum force at the maximum displacement, and the energy dissipation capacity. In addition, the equivalent damping ratios of steel springs made with SAE9254(non-heat treatment) and SS275 were approximately 2.8 times and 1.9 times greater, respectively, than that of steel springs made with SAE9254.

조임쇠 경사길이에 따른 체결식 커플러의 이음성능 평가 Splice Performance Evaluation of Fastening Coupler According to the Slope Length of Internal Fasteners

정현석(Hyun-Suk Jung) ; 최창식(Chang-Sik Choi)

In this study, in order to improve the splice performance of mechanical couplers, two new mechanical couplers with different connection modes were developed with rebar(SD400). The stress analysis of mechanical couplers with two different connection modes was carried out. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out with type of steel, connection mode and the slope length of internal fastener as variables to analyze the influence on the maximum tensile strength. Building upon this previous work, the specimens that met the code in uniaxial tensile test were fabricated and static loading test and cyclic loading test were performed on the basis of Korean code(KS D 0249). The results of this research are as follows; (1) The tensile strength of steel and the slope length of internal fasteners have a certain influence on the maximum tensile strength. (2) The connection mode has some influence on the stiffness, slip and stiffness reduction rate of the connecting rebars. The results verify the feasibility of the proposed enhanced mechanical coupler in the field.

운용모드해석에 기반한 사장교의 장단기 동특성 평가 Evaluation of Short and Long-Term Modal Parameters of a Cable-Stayed Bridge Based on Operational Modal Analysis

박종칠(Jong-Chil Park)

The operational modal analysis (OMA) technique, which extracts the modal parameters of a structural system using ambient vibrations, has been actively developed as a field of structural health monitoring of cable-supported bridges. In this paper, the short and long-term modal parameters of a cable-stayed bridge were evaluated using the acceleration data obtained from the two ambient vibration tests (AVTs) and three years of continuous measurements. A total of 27 vertical modes and 1 lateral mode in the range 0.1 ~ 2.5 Hz were extracted from the high-resolution AVTs which were conducted in the 6th and 19th years after its completion. Existing OMA methods such as Peak-Picking (PP), Eigensystem Realization Algorithm with Data Correlation (ERADC), Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) and Time Domain Decomposition (TDD) were applied for modal parameters extraction, and it was confirmed that there was no significant difference between the applied methods. From the correlation analysis between long-term natural frequencies and environmental factors, it was confirmed that temperature change is the dominant factor influencing natural frequency fluctuations. It was revealed that the decreased natural frequencies of the bridge were not due to changes in structural performance and integrity, but to the environmental effects caused by the temperature difference between the two AVTs. In addition, when the TDD technique is applied, the accuracy of extracted mode shapes is improved by adding a proposed algorithm that normalizes the sequence so that the autocorrelations at zero lag equal 1.

강재 배관 Tee의 한계상태 평가를 위한 손상지수의 적용 Application of Damage Index for Limit State Evaluation of a Steel Pipe Tee

김성완(Sung-Wan Kim) ; 윤다운(Da-Woon Yun) ; 전법규(Bub-Gyu Jeon) ; 김성도(Seong-Do Kim)

Maintaining structural integrity of major apparatuses in a nuclear power plant, including piping system, is recognized as a critical safety issue. The integrity of piping system is also a critical matter related to the safety of a nuclear power plant. The actual failure mode of a piping system due to a seismic load is the leakage due to a fatigue crack, and the structural damage mechanism is the low-cycle fatigue due to large relative displacement that may cause plastic deformation. In this study, in-plane cyclic loading tests were conducted under various constant amplitudes using specimens composed of steel straight pipes and a steel pipe tee in the piping system of a nuclear power plant. The loading amplitude was increased to consider the relative displacement generated in the piping system under seismic loads, and the test was conducted until leakage, which is the limit state of the steel pipe tee, occurred due to fatigue cracks. The limit state of the steel pipe tee was expressed using a damage model based on the damage index that used the force?displacement relationship. As a result, it was confirmed that the limit state of the steel pipe tee can be quantitatively expressed using the damage index.

축소 철근콘크리트 벽체의 내력과 균열진전에 대한 개구부모서리 균열제어 띠의 영향 Effect of Crack Control Strips at Opening Corners on the Strength and Crack Propagation of Downsized Reinforced Concrete Walls

왕혜린(Hye-Rin Wang) ; 양근혁(Keun-Hyeok Yang)

The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of different techniques for controlling the diagonal cracks at the corners of openings on the strength, deformation, and crack propagation in reinforced concrete walls. The crack control strip proposed in this study, the conventional diagonal steel reinforcing bars, and stress-dispersion curved plates were investigated for controlling the diagonal cracks at the opening corners. An additional crack self-healing function was also considered for the crack control strip. To evaluate the volume change ratio and crack width propagation around the opening, downsized wall specimens with a opening were tested under the diagonal shear force at the opening corner. Test result showed that the proposed crack control strip was more effective in reducing the volume change and controlling the crack width around the opening when compared to the conventional previous methods. The crack control strip with crack healing feature displayed the superior performance in improving the strength of the wall and reducing the crack width while healing cracks occurred in the previous tests.

비파괴 측정법을 이용한 지연제 첨가 시멘트 페이스트의 응결 평가 Setting Time Evaluation on Cement Paste with Retarder Using Non-Destructive Measurements

안유리(Yu-Rhee Ahn) ; 전유빈(Yu-Bin Jun) ; 임홍재(Hong Jae Yim)

Controlling the setting time of cementitious materials is one of the most important factors in securing early-age performance of concrete structures. Recently, the use of retarding admixtures, which enable the inhibition of some hydration products to control the securing time due to average temperature rise is suggested. Although various non-destructive evaluation methods have been proposed to evaluate cement hydration and hardening of cement-based materials to overcome the limitations of Vicat needle test, experimental research is still required to use the non-destructive evaluation method with added retarding admixtures. In this study, measurements of electrical resistivity and ultrasonic wave velocity in early-aged cement pastes were performed according to the addition of retarding admixture(tartaric acid). The setting time of the cement pastes was evaluated by obtained rising time of the both non-destructive measurements. As a result, the possibility of evaluating the setting delay in cement pastes was confirmed through comparative analysis with the initial and final setting times by Vicat test. In addition, X-ray diffraction results at the rising time of electrical resistivity showed a key hydration product affecting the setting delay.

이미지 분석을 이용한 균열 콘크리트 내 염화물 침투 정량화 평가 Quantifying Chloride Ingress in Cracked Concrete Using Image Processing

김건수(Kun-Soo) ; 박기태(Kim) ; 김재환(Ki-Tae Park)

Chloride, which is one of the main deterioration factors in reinforced concrete structures, can degrade the performance of the structure due to chloride-induced corrosion of steel. Chloride content at steel depth or the rate of chloride penetration is necessary to determine deterioration of reinforced concrete or to calculate initiation time of steel corrosion caused by chloride attack. Chlorides in concrete are generally identified with typical two methods including chloride profiling using potentiometric titration method and discoloration method using AgNO3 solution. The former is advantageous to estimate chloride penetration rate (diffusion coefficient in general) with measured chloride contents directly, but it is laborious. In the case of latter, while the result is obtained easily with the range of discoloration, the error may occur depending on workmanship when the depth of chloride ingress is measured. This study shows that chloride penetrated depth is evaluated with the results obtained from discoloration method through image analysis, thereby the error is minimized by workmanship. In addition, the effect of micro-crack in concrete is studied on chloride penetration. In conclusion, the depth of chloride penetration was quantified with image analysis and as it was confirmed that chlorides can rapidly penetrate through micro-cracks, caution is especially required for cracks in concrete structure.

철골 끼움가새골조로 보강된 학교건물의 내진성능평가를 위한 비선형 해석 모델에 관한 연구 Study on the Nonlinear Analysis Model for Seismic Performance Evaluation of School Buildings Retrofitted with Infilled Steel Frame with Brace

유석형(Suk-Hyeong Yoo) ; 고관욱(Kwan-Wook Ko)

Recently, damage to buildings due to earthquakes in Korea occurred mainly in school buildings and Piloti-type multi-family houses, highlighting the need for seismic retrofit for buildings of the same type. In the early days of the seismic retrofit project for school facilities, various patented methods using dampers as a ductile seismic retrofit method were applied without sufficient verification procedures. However, in ? School Facility Seismic Performance Evaluation and Retrofit Manual, 2021?, when the patented method is applied, it must be applied through a separate strict verification procedure, and instead, the strength/stiffness retrofit method was induced as a general method. In practice,when evaluating seismic performance for retrofit by infilled steel frame with brace, the analysis model is constructed by directly connecting only the steel brace to the existing RC member. However, if the frame is removed from the analysis model of the infilled steel frame with brace, the force reduction occurring on the existing RC member near the retrofit is considered to be very large, and this is judged to affect the review of whether to retrofit the foundation or not. Therefore, in this study, preliminary analysis with variables such as whether or not steel frame is taken into account and frame link method for the analysis model of RC school building retrofitted by infilled steel frame with brace and nonlinear analysis for actual 3-story school building was performed, and basic data for rational analysis model setting were presented by comparing preliminary analysis and pushover analysis results for each variable.

3D 프린팅용 시멘트계 복합재료의 경시변화 및 역학적 특성평가 Evaluation of Fluidity Over Time and Mechanical Properties of Cement-based Composite Materials for 3D Printing

서은아(Eun-A Seo) ; 이호재(Ho-Jae Lee) ; 양근혁(Keun-Hyeok Yang)

This study evaluated changes in fluidity and rheological properties over time for 3D printed composite materials, and evaluated compressive strength and splitting tensile strength properties for laminated and molded specimens. The composite material for 3D printing starts to change rapidly after 30 minutes of extrusion, and the viscosity of the material tends to be maintained up to 90 minutes, but it was confirmed that construction within 60 minutes after mixing is effective. The compressive strength of the laminated test specimen showed equivalent or better performance at all ages compared to the molded test specimen. In the stress-strain curve of the laminated specimen, the initial slope was similar to that of the molded specimen, but the descending slope was on average 1.9 times higher than that of the molded specimen, indicating relatively brittle behavior. The splitting tensile strength of the P-V laminated specimen was about 6% lower than that of the molded specimen. It is judged that this is because the interfacial adhesion force against the vertical load is affected by the pattern direction of the laminated test specimen.

CFRP 보강근 보강 콘크리트 슬래브 휨설계의 효율성에 관한 연구 Investigation for the Efficiency in Flexural Design of CFRP Bar-Reinforced Concrete Slab

강수태(Su-Tae Kang) ; 양은익(Eun-Ik Yang) ; 최명성(Myung-Sung Choi)

In this study, for one-way concrete slabs, the flexural strength, deflection, and crack width according to the amount of reinforcing bars were compared for the cases of using steel reinforcing bars and CFRP reinforcing bars. Critical performance dominating the flexural design was investigated and how to design the CFRP-reinforced concrete slab with efficiency was also discussed. It was found that CFRP-reinforced concrete slabs could achieve greater design flexural strength with the same amount of reinforcing bars compared to those using steel rebar, while deflection and crack width were relatively much larger. In concrete slabs using CFRP reinforcing bars, it was confirmed that the maximum crack width acts as a dominant factor in the design. For more efficient flexural design, it is necessary to mitigate the allowable crack width to 0.7 mm and to apply smaller diameter reinforcing bars to control the crack width.