Journal of
the Architectural Institute of Korea

  • ISSN : 2733-6239(Print)
  • ISSN : 2733-6247(Online)

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A Study on the Envelopes of Office Architecture for the Realization of Biophilic Design

김정석(Kim, Jung-Suk) ; 김민경(Kim, Min-Kyung)

In Architecture, biophilic design is known as the theory that human health and efficiency are improved by creating built environments through natural elements, and it mainly focuses on comfortable indoor activities for humans. However, most of them were applied and used in indoor spaces in a built environment, and the scope of their application was narrow. Therefore, this paper analyzes the biophilic design theory by dividing it into sensuous design and technical design through prior research, and applies it to the external environment of architecture through parametric design. The exterior of architecture is the primary boundary between the exterior and interior, and is important because it exerts a strong sensual and environmental influence on the interior environment. In addition, buildings have a large impact on environmental issues, a global issue, and one of the biggest causes of energy load is the curtain-wall-type envelope. Many office architectures have this problem. Therefore, by implementing a biophilic design on the outer skin and outer space of a high-rise building, the effect of stimulating both human senses and functions is expected not only inside the building but also outside. In addition, based on the biophilic design theory, we hope to contribute to the natural environment by analyzing the theories of existing researchers and reinterpreting them based on senses and experiences to suggest ways to apply biophilic design to the external environment of buildings.

EEG-Based Emotional Lighting Control for Improving User Concentration in Spatial Design

강세연(Kang, Se-Yeon) ; 지승열(Ji, Seung-Yeul) ; 전한종(Jun, Han-Jong)

An intelligent system that takes into consideration both rational and emotional needs has the potential to create an optimized environment for specific conditions and enhance the understanding of the characteristics of diverse users. In this study, a sustainable lighting process is proposed that employs emotional lighting to sustain the user's focused state by analyzing real-time biometric data acquired through EEG and considering the correlation between illumination and concentration(ENG, engagement). Additionally, the user-centered emotional lighting process, which integrates EEG and lighting sensor technology, was analyzed and compared to the prevailing lighting standards by means of experiments. This research is significant as it offers a new analytical approach to sustainable design research that is customized to the requirements of architectural space users.

Analysis of Architectural Design Style Using CNN Output Layer Values

이상현(Lee, Sang-Hyun) ; 한지후(Han, Ji-Hoo)

The purpose of this study is to present a methodology that can systematically evaluate whether there are morphological similarities commonly found in the works of a specific architect. This work notes that the magnitude of the final output layer value of CNN applied to a particular image implies the likelihood that the image can be classified into a particular category. To explore the morphological similarity or the possibility of determining the existence of a style, the following process was performed. This was demonstrated through analysis of CNN structures and empirical experiments that can evaluate the presence and strength of styles by the magnitude and deviation of the final output values. A classifier model that distinguishes certain architect's works from those of other architects was created. The classifier model was applied to the work of a specific architect to obtain the final output value for each work. The possibility of style evaluation using CNN by comparing two architects who are often evaluated as strong in style and those who are not was confirmed. In this study, Frank Gehry, who is evaluated as strong in style, and MVRDV, which is evaluated as weak in style were compared. In the case of Frank Gehry, it was confirmed that the magnitude of the final output layer of the CNN model was larger and the deviation was smaller than those of the MVRDV. Accordingly, it was proved that it is possible to evaluate the existence and strength of a style using the final output layer value of the CNN model.

Effects of Urban Regeneration on Start-ups, Closures, and the Number of Stores in Neighborhood Commercial Districts

임보영(Im, Bo-Yeong)

Nine years have passed since the implementation of urban regeneration projects, but studies verifying the effectiveness of these projects in terms of revitalizing a neighborhood have been insufficient. This study aims to analyze the effect on the number of start-ups, closures, and stores where urban regeneration projects were implemented and its surrounding areas. To analyze the effectiveness of these projects, difference-in-difference methods were performed using commercial area information data. The results of this study revealed the number of start-ups in the 100m×100m grid increased by 0.507 as an urban regeneration project was implemented. On the other hand, an average of 0.901 business closures occurred in the areas where such a project was implemented after the completion of it. As a result, after the implementation and completion of an urban regeneration project, -2.35 stores decreased in the area.

The Effects of User Satisfaction on Public Libraries in Terms of Publicness on Satisfaction with Residential Environment and Sense of Community

변기동(Byun, Gidong) ; 하미경(Ha, Mikyoung)

In modern cities, public libraries serve as a cultural infrastructure centered on living areas as regional bases and are changing to improve exchanges between local residents. This study aims to find out the effect of public library satisfaction in terms of publicness on residential environment satisfaction and its sense of community. A survey was conducted on 200 people who had experience using public libraries, and a structural equation model (SEM) was used to analyze the relationship between various factors. The results confirmed that satisfaction with public libraries in terms of publicness had a positive effect on satisfaction with a residential environment. Therefore, it is necessary to look at the results of this study in terms of finding ways to improve public library users' awareness as it relates to the overall residential environment. Satisfaction in the residential environment had a positive effect on the sense of community. The possibility of activities in a region increased through satisfaction with a residential environment and can strengthen the positive perception of a community, representing the relationship with the human environment beyond the physical environment of a region. Satisfaction with public libraries not only had a direct positive effect on a sense of community but also through the mediation of satisfaction in a residential environment. In terms of publicness, the degree of public library satisfaction improved the perception of a residential environment of local residents living in the area and affected the level of community awareness based on their relationships.

A Study on Factors that Make People Recognize the Value of Conserving and Utilizing a Deserted House

윤현철(Youn, Hyun-Chul) ; 류성룡(Ryoo, Seong-Lyong)

In this study, a deserted house exhibition was held in an urban regeneration activation area of Junghwa 2-dong. A survey was conducted on visitors regarding the deserted house and the exhibition to investigate and analyze the ranking of elements that made people recognize the value of conserving and utilizing such a house. A total of 58 people participated in the survey, and the research results were derived using the method of ranked multiple response analysis that assigned weight to the frequency by rank of the factors from the responses of the collected questionnaires. As a result, it was found that the building itself was important as a physical factor. The importance of external spaces such as courtyard and fence were relatively low. As for the psychological factor, most of the respondents answered that it was because of the recollection felt in a deserted house. Among the exhibits, the importance ratio was high in the order of intuitive understanding such as photos, videos, and architectural models.

A Preference for the Interior Landscaping Plan in Subway Station Space

김원지(Kim, Won-Ji) ; 이태경(Lee, Tae-Kyung)

The purpose of this study is to find out subway station users’ preferences regarding interior landscaping plans in subway stations. A survey was conducted online for about a week from November 11, 2022 to November 18, 2022 on 124 adult men and women in their 20s and 50s residing in Busan with experience using subways. The 124 questionnaires collected were subjected to frequency analysis, descriptive statistical analysis, χ2 -test, and multiple response frequency analysis using the program SPSS Statistics 27. The analysis results revealed that the satisfaction level of subway station users was average. It was found that the environment of the subway station space needs improvement due to the subway station image being recognized as clean, modern yet complex, confused, hard, and uniform. There was a high demand for environmental, psychological, decorative, and healing effects through the introduction of interior landscaping. In this regard, it was identified that harmony with the surrounding environment, management status and planning, and overall landscape design should be centrally considered when planning interior landscapes. As a result of examining the preferred planting techniques according to the spatial composition of a subway station space, green wall or pillar style and garden style were preferred at the entrance, garden style and tree planting style for the concourse or hall, green wall or pillar style was preferred at the passageway, and green wall or pillar style, container or pot style for the fare gate and platform. For plants, plants with wide leaves and various leaf shapes were mainly planted. In the case of the greenness index range, it was calculated by including containers or pot. The preferred plant introduction form was mixed plants consisting of natural and artificial, and the preferred landscaping constituent method was mixed of plants and ornaments. This study is expected to help expand the method and scope of subway station interior landscaping by using it as basic data for a healthy and pleasant subway station interior landscaping plan that users can be satisfied with.

An Analysis of the Importance of CPTED Certification Criteria in the Community Welfare Center

강석진(Kang, Seok-Jin) ; 김진욱(Kim, Jin-Wook) ; 박승연(Park, Seung-Yeon) ; 김고원(Kim, Go-Won)

This study was conducted to find-out to improve and utilize the CPTED certification criteria of community welfare centers from the perspective of the necessity of crime prevention and the expansion of the scope of CPTED research. As a result of the literature review, the CPTED certification of the community welfare center currently applies the criteria of apartment complexes, and the weight of each item was arbitrarily set, which caused a problem. In order to solve these problems, the certification criteria were revised to 42 items in 4 areas by reflecting the characteristics of the community welfare center and users. And, the importance of areas and detailed items was calculated through expert surveys in the architecture and police administration fields. As a result of AHP analysis, it was found that "safety facilities and buildings" are important, and "outdoor space and boundary of site" are relatively less important. Among the 42 detailed items, the importance of surveillance principle was very high, such as CCTV and lighting installation in underground parking lots, visual contact underground parking lots, and in childcare facilities and playground. In addition, the importance of items reflecting the principle of access control was high in the vehicle entry space at the site boundary, work space (including cores), low-use rooftop floors, basement and connection points, and exterior walls of the building.

A Study on the Spatial Composition Planning of Medical Welfare Facilities for the Elderly with Severe Disabilities

이을규(Lee, Eul-Gyu) ; 양관목(Yang, Kwan-Mok) ; 김성룡(Kim, Sung-Ryong) ; 이경락(Lee, Kyeong-Lark)

The aging rate of Korea is currently 15.7% in 2020 and is expected to exceed 34.4% in 2040. The use of welfare services for the elderly shows a tendency to shift from facility services to home healthcare services. Prior to 2008, nursing facilities were divided into paid care facilities, actual cost care facilities, and free care facilities. However, with the introduction of the long-term care insurance system for the elderly in 2008, it seems that facilities for the elderly and health and medical policies have been operated in a more comprehensive manner. But there is a part where more functional differentiation needs to be made in welfare facilities for the elderly. In this way, proper medical treatment is provided and excessive services are not implemented, so insurance premiums are claimed properly, and thus long-term care insurance for the elderly and medical insurance finances are strengthened. Ultimately, it will reduce the burden of medical expenses for the elderly and increase the quality of services. Currently, the legal boundary between nursing homes for the elderly, elderly hospitals, and general hospitals is ambiguous, and it is difficult for the elderly to select appropriate facilities. The facilities to be investigated in this study are facilities that can be used by the elderly with severe disabilities at level 2 or higher for long-term care in Korea and abroad. Through this study, we found the following facts. The current spatial composition of the medical welfare facilities for the elderly is still insufficient to practically realize the principle of respect for human beings, the principle of home protection, and the principle of professional protection development, which are the ideologies of welfare facilities for the elderly. It is being built to the extent that it barely meets the legal standard of 23.6㎡ of gross floor area per resident and the legal standard of bedroom area per resident of elderly care facilities. As a result, Currently, the medical welfare facilities are insufficient to secure the private life area of the elderly, and it is difficult to secure sufficient space for privacy in accordance with the principle of respect for human beings.

A Study on Changes in Movement Lines and Space Use of Jinchan King, Crown Prince, and the Son of the Prince in the Joseon Dynasty

석진영(Seok, Jin-Young)

Summarizing the characteristics of the movement lines, the center is the location of the king, the center is the location of the king, the east side is the king, the crown prince, the crown prince, and the royal family, and the west side is the seat of the subjects. The detailed hierarchical division between each position was divided between the king and the successor, between the royal family, and between the king and subject. If the characteristics of the movement line are summarized as gates, Jeongmun is the movement line of the king and his successors. The east-west side gates located on the left and right sides of the hall were used by the royal family and ministers, and the hierarchy between the royal family and subjects was also divided into gates. Analyzing the characteristics of jinchan by external and internal circumstance, the king waits in the outer court, passes through the center of the front gate, and finally ascends to the ceremonial hall of the ceremonial hall. The crown prince mainly used the east gate of the main gate and performed the ceremonies in the eastern position, and the crown prince's son was located below and behind the crown prince in the eastern area. In the inner palace, the king's movement becomes concise, and in the daily meeting led by the crown prince, a central movement line appears in which the crown prince passes through the middle gate of the front gate. In the inner court, the movement of the king becomes concise, and in the following day's meeting led by the crown prince, the pattern of the movement of the center appears as the crown prince passes through the central gate. The crown prince's movement shows a complex movement and a mixed pattern of the center and the east to perform various ceremonies appropriate to the procedure at the banquet. The location of the crown prince was divided into the east, which was separated from the king's straight line of movement, and royal women such as the crown princess mainly used the west area. From the external and internal courts during the reign of King Sunjo, the position and movement of the king and crown prince can give a glimpse of the kingship that was passed on to the successor who had actual authority, and it can be confirmed that the will of King Sunjo's gyejisul is being passed on to Crown Prince Hyomyeong. In other words, in the inner circle, the middle, straight line is the king's hierarchy, the east is the hierarchy of the successor who inherits the kingship, and the complex aspect of the center and the east is the hierarchy of the successor who carries out the kingship by proxy.