Journal of
the Architectural Institute of Korea

  • ISSN : 2733-6239(Print)
  • ISSN : 2733-6247(Online)

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Estimation of Human Preference for Architectural Shape using CNN

이상현(Lee, Sang-Hyun) ; 한지후(Han, Ji-Hoo)

This study aims to explore the possibility that artificial intelligence can identify human preferences through images using the convolutional neural network (CNN). To determine if people had a consistent preference for form, experiment participants were asked to select the preferred images among 200 images twice, which were automatically generated in dynamo. In the two consecutive image selection processes, ten participants repeatedly selected the same images at a rate of 79 percent. These results confirmed that there is a consistent preference for form. Next, the possibility of identifying the preference for form using CNN was investigated. Data for each experiment participant was divided into two sets. The preferred and non-preferred images were included in each set at a certain percentage. A classification model was produced by conducting supervised learning using CNN with one of the two sets. The classification accuracy was measured by applying this classification model to the other set. As a result of these tests, the classification model created by CNN could classify the preferred and non-preferred images with 82.7 percent accuracy. In random selection, the probability of correctly classifying the preferred and non-preferred images with more than 82.7 percent accuracy was 6.5 x 10-12 percent. Therefore, 82.7 percent reflects a fairly high classification accuracy. Based on this high accuracy, it was possible to identify human preferences for form using CNN

Impact Assessment Analysis of the Environmental Affect Categories by the Ready Mixed Concrete Product

이강희(Lee, Kang-Hee) ; 채창우(Chae, Chang-U)

Global climate change, global warming potential and climate shock have been interesting topics for climate researchers to discuss for more than a decade and people over the world no longer expect natural normalization of the climate crisis. Buildings, among other issues, have been a center of the climate change discussions because they play a key role between preservation and development. In addition to its balancing responsibility, building industry has been known for emitting a large portion of CO₂ and consuming a huge amount of energy. The industry needs to seek changes for both sustainable and decent development strategy. In this regard, G-SEED system has been operated to contribute to the conservation and sustainability of the nature since 2001. But this system does not provide explanation for how much its building materials and components affect the environment. Therefore, it is needed to assess the amount which have effects on the environment, by taking into account of the material and components in building planing and construction. This paper examines Remicon assessment unit to estimate the assessment amount of Resource footprint, Global warming potential, Ozone depletion potential, Photochemical smog potential, Acidification and Eutrophication. These units are to estimate the environmental assessment in building planing and construction and to select the optimal alternative. Results of this study are as follows: first, Remicon has a assessment unit 1.028578 ㎏Sb-e/㎥ of the resource footprint, 264.886362 ㎏CO2-eq./㎥ of the global warming potential, 7.5150×10-6 ㎏CFC-11-eq./㎥ of the ozone depletion potential, 0.361334 ㎏SO2-eq./㎥ of the acidification, 0.043495 ㎏PO43-eq./㎥ of the eutrophication, 0.2135715 ㎏C2H4-eq./㎥ of the photochemical smog potential and 0.783181 ㎥H2O-eq./㎥ of the water footprint.

Errors in Address Data for Address Based Integration of Building Open Data Using Open API

이종원(Lee, Jong-Won) ; 김세헌(Kim, Se-Heon) ; 김덕우(Kim, Deuk-Woo) ; 이승언(Lee, Seung-Eon)

This study aims to present an actual case study of address as the reference point, for the integration of public open application programming interface (Open API). Possible improvements were suggested for address data management by investigating error cases of address data. An algorithm for automated distinguishability of address data error was presented. After that, 86,586 address data from the government public data portal ( was processed with the algorithm. The results of the error cases were classified into five categories, the reasons for occurrence were discovered, and improvements were then suggested. This study mainly contributes to the analysis of actual cases of public address data with the purpose of facilitating data-based integration of public open data. Further study is needed to develop an algorithm to consider detailed addresses and to expand the range of data to private data with a de-identification process. This study hopes to serve as the basis for improved address-based utilization of public data in the construction field.

Universal Design Evaluation and Suggestions Regarding the Barrier-Free Certification System

오현서(Oh, Hyun-Seo) ; 조영행(Cho, Young-Hang) ; 이재용(Lee, Jae-Yong)

This study aims to reanalyze barrier-free certification based on universal design, develop universal design evaluation criteria, and evaluate buildings certified by barrier-free certification. Literature studies and site visits to five office buildings located in Busan and Gyeongsangnam-do were examined. Upon analysis, their office facilities for the disabled regarding obstruction of obstacles, comfort of space and facility convenience applied to the general public reflected significantly low scores. Additionally, the installation of convenient facilities in their barrier-free certification revealed low scores. These results verified the necessity of universal design evaluation criteria. Specific case studies and continuous research on universal design needs to better reflect the relevant system and its policies. After evaluating buildings certified by barrier-free certification that focus on access and use for disabled people, pregnant women, the elderly, and public, this study has the potential to provide direction for improving future evaluation guidelines.

Improvements and Issues Regarding the Public Architectural Planning System

신형준(Shin, Hyung-Joon)

Among the public architectural planning systems established in South Korea, this study aims to examine the current state and through relation analysis derive predictable problem scenarios. With regards to improving this system, priority was placed in the execution order or major review items between procedures. And, it is essential to consider interrelationships and mutual synergy between procedures while understanding the relationship between investment appraisal and the preliminary review of public building project plans. In terms of reexamination and its standards, it is necessary to operate and internalize a building planning system that embraces an efficient and rapid project promotion with increased site utilization. Regarding the exemption conditions of the preliminary review of public building project plans, the procedure is exempt if the total project cost exceeds 50 billion KRW. Thus, institutional supplementation is needed to substantiate the architectural planning system. Existing research mainly addresses the ACT ON THE PROMOTION OF BUILDING SERVICE INDUSTRY, but this study attempts to break away from that by fixating on the architectural planning stage, placing significance on the relation analysis, while including architectural quality, construction technology and a balanced budget. The limitations of this study involved the procedural aspects based on the provisions of the statute at the basic research level.

An Analysis of the City as a Museum Object Appeared in City Museums’ Evolution

유영이(Yoo, Young Yi) ; 박소현(Park, So-Hyun)

This study explores the city as a museum object that acts as the establishment’s background and renews the permanent exhibitions of city museums that typically collects, preserves and studies cities. As a place that captures the zeitgeist, the museum displays the city and, in the process, sets the standards to objectify a city. This analysis was conducted on early city museums (the Carnavalet-History of Paris Museum, the London Museum, the New York City Museum, the Amsterdam Museum) and the Seoul Museum of History. The results revealed that city museums were built during a unique conflict between urban development and urban heritage preservation. Compared to focusing on tangible heritage like in the early days of city museums, gradually a shift in focus expanded the intangible heritage such as individual experiences, memories, and opinions from the local community. The standard of collecting changed from the monumental approach of the ruling class such as royalty, the elite, and entrepreneurs to the everydayness of citizens. Rather than presenting a unilateral interpretation of experts, city museums have become a venue for communication by respecting various interpretations and opinions regarding the past, present, and future of a city.

A Checklist of Major Responsive Review Elements of Small-size Collective Housing Based on a Local Architectural Committee’s Review Results

최경옥(Choi, Kyung-Ok) ; 김원필(Kim, Won-Pil)

This study aims to propose a checklist for architectural reviews based on the internal elements of small-size collective housing from an architectural committee’s results of 25 district offices. From January 2019 through March 2020, approval documents of 25 Seoul district offices that were made public on the architectural committee’s website were analyzed. Based on the review classification system in Seoul, a high frequency score of review comments produced an internal elements checklist. Frequency analysis with more than five comments among 2,907 cases revealed that internal elements were sorted into seven large-scale classifications of 39 elements and middle-scale classifications of 110 elements. During the first round, seven class types were arranged as public space, exclusive space, service space, section, insulation, waterproofing, and equipment. These elements counted as frequency for further content analysis. Middle-scale elements were rearranged according to the public classification system while prior elements were extracted from review comments and the frequency score. These research findings could act as a fundamental base in practically contributing to the use and establishment of a related research system.

The Architectural Planning Strategies for Multifamily Housing in a Post-Pandemic World

신두식(Shin, Doosik) ; 이명식(Lee, Myung-Sik) ; 유용현(Yu, Yong-Hyun)

The rapid spread of COVID-19 not only created a global public health crisis, but also affected almost every aspect of our lives. After investigating the fundamental impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on housing needs, this study envisions what multifamily housing will look like in a post-pandemic world. Through the lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic, the design of residential architecture should incorporate preventive and mitigating measures to cope with any future epidemics. After factoring this new reality, this study aims to develop architectural planning strategies for multifamily housing, particularly mid to high-rise apartment housing as a predominant housing typology in Korea. An in-depth multi-disciplinary literature review was carried out to examine previous outbreaks and their impacts, assess the transmission of viruses in built environments, and observe the emerging lifestyles that resulted in the new approach of living, working, and interacting. Comparative analyses of existing guidelines for multifamily housing in response to COVID-19 were also conducted to develop a conceptual framework of architectural planning more suitable for multifamily housing in Korea. As a result of this study, a set of architectural strategies that accommodated new lifestyles while promoting quality of life through an occupant’s health and well-being were established. This strategy set is intended to provide a foundation for further research to generate more detailed design considerations for future residential developments.

A Study on the Modular House with Flexible Interior Space

마승범(Ma, Seung-Bum)

In South Korea, the modular housing industry is invigorated by governmental support, the academic research involving this industry predominantly focuses on constructability and technical improvements. Under these circumstances, this study aims to enhance the spatial quality of a modular house for 1-2 people by developing a flexible system for a homeowner to rearrange and reorganize their home accordingly. After considering various factors to modular housing, the methods of introducing flexibility in the residential typology were investigated. To better support people to live in a more flexible environment, an adaptable cartridge in the form of a ‘plug-in’ based system was developed. Residents could then easily use the cartridges to work with different configurations to meet their immediate needs; these cartridges are customizable, replaceable, and disposable however a homeowner sees fit. New types of flexible modular housing for 1-2 people were proposed through the integration of an adaptable cartridge system with a deliverable size of factory manufactured modules. Furthermore, a prototype project consisting of these new modular housing types for 1-2 people with a flexible system was designed to calibrate the idea’s feasibility.

Local University Campus Viable and Relevant Approach to the Times

노준석(Noh, Jun-Seok)

Deterioration of space within local universities that developed in the 1980s has led to demands for spatial rearrangement and facility improvements. In accordance with the decreasing number of school-age population, reduction in student admission is expected, and the projected occupied space per head needs downsizing. Based on a spatial characteristics analysis of the Wonkwang Academy campus by period and through a survey conducted on university members, a sustainable master plan for improvement in a school’s physical space was established. The strategic points of this plan involve a corporate-friendly campus, stimulation of specialty fields related to a local university, and open-typed campus to coexist with a region were applied to the “2046 Sustainable Master Plan.” The local government and Wonkwang Academy will team up to construct an open space for local residents and create places for culture, amusement, and exercise. This has the potential to attract a floating population inside of campus and revitalize its unused space. In addition, it newly establishes zones for history, business, sports, and events for citizens that are relevant to the times while maintaining the existing zone. Each zone is connected to trails to have a cyclic structure, evolving into a park for locals and university members. Based on the needs of the times, it builds an independent developmental strategy for local universities and presents a sample master plan.